Lecture 3 Readings
HOURS OF WORK AND ALTERNATIVE WORK ARRANGEMENTS
- hours in the manufacturing sector in canada was reduced due to union pressures and
the introduction of new manufacturing technologies.
- from 64 hours to 36 hours a week
- canadians spend less time at work now compared a century ago
- interests in alternative work schedules are
- teleworking, working at home or in a remote site, often using computer tech-
- flextime, choosing the time to start and stop work
- job sharing have been receiving more attention in the past decade.
- these work options can help mothers with work and child care
- drawback of these is that they have low job security, benefits and satisfy-
ing networks with co-workers.
VARIETIES OF NONSTANDARD WORK
- part-time work is the most common type of nonstandard work
- but the number of multiple-job holders are also been increasing.
- also the own-account self-employed has also been increasing.
- temporary (contract/contingent) work has also became more widespread.
- some workers may choose nonstandard work by personal preference, but for many,
such choices are a response to a difficult labour market.
- part time work has been increasing.
- work that is a MAIN job for some people but they work less than 30 hours are
also considered as part time work.
- women 25+ have been increasingly involved in part time work.
- some people are forced into part time work as they can’t find a full time job.
TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT AND PART YEAR WORK
- temporary workers were in seasonal jobs
- young workers are heavily over-represented in temporary jobs.
- this type of work, we know considerably less about. FUTURE TRENDS
- a decline in self-employment
LABOUR MARKETS AND JOBS: OPPORTUNITIES AND INEQUALITY
- labour market can be defined as the arena in which employers seek to purchase about
from potential employees who themselves are seeking jobs suitable to their education,
experience and preferences.
- in labour market workers exchange their skills, knowledge, and loyalty in return
for status, pay, and further career opportunities, and other job rewards.
- institutions like schools and families prepares people to enter, or re enter the labour
- government legislation also affects how labour market operates
- e.g. setting minimum wage
- assists with unemployed with financial support
- job-training program
- unions and professional associations are active in the labour market, trying to gain ad-
ditional benefits for their members.
- sociologists are particularly interested in the distributive aspects of labour market.
- specifically, does the labour market provide opportunities for hard-working indi-
viduals to improve their social position and quality of life, or does it reinforce pat-
terns of inequality in society. or both?
- human capital theory
- jobs requiring more effort, training and skill typically receive greater rewards
- assumes that labour market participants compete openly for the best jobs, and
that the most qualified people end up in the jobs requiring their particular skills