Class Notes (811,169)
Canada (494,539)
Sociology (3,207)
SOC101Y1 (985)
Lecture 3


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University of Toronto St. George
Paul Glavin

Lecture 3 Readings HOURS OF WORK AND ALTERNATIVE WORK ARRANGEMENTS - hours in the manufacturing sector in canada was reduced due to union pressures and the introduction of new manufacturing technologies. - from 64 hours to 36 hours a week - canadians spend less time at work now compared a century ago - interests in alternative work schedules are - teleworking, working at home or in a remote site, often using computer tech- nologies - flextime, choosing the time to start and stop work - job sharing have been receiving more attention in the past decade. - these work options can help mothers with work and child care - drawback of these is that they have low job security, benefits and satisfy- ing networks with co-workers. VARIETIES OF NONSTANDARD WORK - part-time work is the most common type of nonstandard work - but the number of multiple-job holders are also been increasing. - also the own-account self-employed has also been increasing. - temporary (contract/contingent) work has also became more widespread. - some workers may choose nonstandard work by personal preference, but for many, such choices are a response to a difficult labour market. PART-TIME WORK - part time work has been increasing. - work that is a MAIN job for some people but they work less than 30 hours are also considered as part time work. - women 25+ have been increasingly involved in part time work. - some people are forced into part time work as they can’t find a full time job. TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT AND PART YEAR WORK - temporary workers were in seasonal jobs - young workers are heavily over-represented in temporary jobs. - this type of work, we know considerably less about. FUTURE TRENDS - a decline in self-employment LABOUR MARKETS AND JOBS: OPPORTUNITIES AND INEQUALITY - labour market can be defined as the arena in which employers seek to purchase about from potential employees who themselves are seeking jobs suitable to their education, experience and preferences. - in labour market workers exchange their skills, knowledge, and loyalty in return for status, pay, and further career opportunities, and other job rewards. - institutions like schools and families prepares people to enter, or re enter the labour market. - government legislation also affects how labour market operates - e.g. setting minimum wage - assists with unemployed with financial support - job-training program - unions and professional associations are active in the labour market, trying to gain ad- ditional benefits for their members. - sociologists are particularly interested in the distributive aspects of labour market. - specifically, does the labour market provide opportunities for hard-working indi- viduals to improve their social position and quality of life, or does it reinforce pat- terns of inequality in society. or both? - human capital theory - jobs requiring more effort, training and skill typically receive greater rewards - assumes that labour market participants compete openly for the best jobs, and that the most qualified people end up in the jobs requiring their particular skills
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