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SOC101Y1 (985)
Robert Brym (148)

Research Methods

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University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Research Methods cont’d - Surveys helps overcome validity problems o Provides consistent measures o Can be used to establish causal relations o Most popular method used by sociologists - A sample is part of a group - A population is the entire group - A voluntary response sample is a group of ppl who chose themselves in response to a general appeal - A representative sample is a group of ppl chosen so their characteristics closely match those of the population of interest - A convenience sample consists of ppl who are easiest to reach - If respondents are chosen at random and an individual’s chance of being chosen is known and greater than zero, the respondents constitute a probability sample o To do this, you need:  A sampling frame is a list of all the ppl in the population of interest  A randomizing method is a way of ensuring every person in the sampling frame has a known, equal, and non-zero chance of begin selected - Eg. Sampling Error: Conservatives – 48%, 2.5% margin of error Liberals – 50%, 2.5% margin of error o Sample measures have overlapping margins of error, so the measured difference in popularity of the two parties is not statistically significant - Types of Surveys: o A mail questionnaire is a from containing questions is mailed to the respondent and returned to the researcher through the mail system o The response rate is the number of ppl who answer the questionnaire divided by the number of ppl asked to do so, expressed as a percent o In a face-to-face interview survey, ques
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