Sept 19 - Lecture 2
• Ethnocentrism: involves judging another culture exclusively by the
standards of one’s own
• Cultural relativism: the belief that all elements of all cultures
should be respected as equally valid
• Cliterectomy: all procedures involving total removal of female
genital (girls 4-5) and some people believe it will enhance female
fertile. Female are unclean and masculine if they have a male gentile
(clitoris) and will likely be sexually active, and unlikely to remain
faithful in marriage. Infection shots, psychology damage, infertile, as
the result it is now consider violence against women.
• Culture can restrains us but gives us tools for liberation:
1. Rationalization: the application of the most efficient means to
achieve given goals and the often unintended, negative
consequences of doing so.
Bureaucracy (Max Vebber): large impersonal organization
composed of clearly defined positions arranged in a hierarchy. It
has permanent, salaried stage of qualified experts and written
goals, rules and procedures. Staff members strive to achieve
goals more efficient.
2. Consumerism: lifestyle that defines one’s self in terms of the
goods one purchases (Ex. we dress to tell what our identities are
and what groups we belong to and don’t belong to)
We have desperately to be part of a group and not an outcast.
We don’t want to be excluded, our inclination is to conform.
High levels of consumerisms are environmentally damaging =
Theoretical Traditions in Sociology
Tradition / Focus / Main Question / Fashion Interpretation
1. Tradition: Functionalist
How do the institutions of society contribute to social stability? /
Fashion exists to have social inequality. Fashion cycles help to
preserve the class system by allowing people of different rank to
evaluate and distinguish themselves.
After the 1960 fashion become mo