Culture is shared, takes place by means of human communication, interaction. Som
e people misinterpret culture (e.g think its opera, high class). Sociologicaly i
ts something that becomes shared when the need arises, its a collective behaviou
r of sorts.
Hero's aelo- first steam engine, was used by one of the leader's of Alexandria t
o open a door. Later rediscovered in the 1800s it was "needed" again and its use
became widespread. Culture - many people with similar practices and beliefs(bef
ore that its just superstition for example).
Computer helped to sink U-boats in the war. The computer became important when a
widespread social need for it became important.
We look at our culture like a fish is unaware of it being swimming in water, peo
ple are uncritical, unaware of their own culture. Wherease one may look on other
people's cultures as odd, irritional or inferior - Ethnocentrism. (judging othe
cultures exclusively based on your own) It impairs sociological understanding a
s much as being unaware of ones own culture.
Cliterectomy performed at ages 4-14, some people think its increases fertility (
likelyhood to produce more children), some believe women are more masculine if t
hey dont undergo the procedure. Others believe it reduces sexual arousal in wome
n, leading to benefits. Others say it has medical consequences such as infection
, bleeding (Short term), infertility, hiv-aids, hepatitis b (long term). Non med
ical - psychological issues, trauma.
In general important to avoid ethnocentrism, and understand others with empathy,
however we should draw the line, reject cultural practices that transcend any o
ne culture (e.g. denial of human dignity, freedom)
Pink floyd brick in the wall, education is thought control, just another item on
the assembly line (children), song rejects constraints forced upon children. Cu
lture is twofaced - it can constrain us but also free us. We need to understand
bureaucracy - some people have authority of others, has negative an unintended c
onsequences sometimes (e.g rationalization of bureaucracy - u of t soc from 1993
to 2010, negative-much less personal interaction, students become alienated)
Our kind of purchases is defined by some aspects of who we are (e.g what kind of
a person someone is, can be translated into what clothes he buys, car he drives
- is he gay, is he