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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Alexandra Marin

LECTURE 5 Centrality: measure of extent to which a particualr node dominates a network What does it mean for a node to dominate a network?: sometimes is not entirely clear which node is central – but once we find the centrality, we need to measure it : STAR NETWORK: advantages of central point: visibilty, short path distances, stands between other pairs of nodes ….since there are 3 benefits, there must be 3 different types of measures: 1. Freeman’s Centrality Measures: DEGREE: the number of connections a node has . in directed networks can be divided into in –degree, out-degree and total- degree, measures network activity The in-degree nodes coming in, signfiied by an arrow point in at the node, the out-degree is the complete opposite where arrows pointing out fmor the node, the total degree is the total of in and out arrows – measures network activity 2.Freeman’s Centrality Measures: Closeness measures how far the node is on average to every other node, the inverse sum of geodesics (shortest path) to every other node-measre of how well things originating here likley to spread-sphere of influence 3.Freeman’s Centrality Measures: Betweenness measures the extent to which a node lies between other nodes, counts the number of geodesic (shortest) paths that the node lies on and weighs for length of paths and numbers of alternative geodesics, measures control and gatekeeping/brokering ability CENTRALITY: Eigenvector Centrality Modified degree centrality, being connected to 5 popular people is different form being connected to 5 hermits you are more central is you have more connections to nodes with more connections Centralization: measures of the extent to which a network (or compnent) is dominated by a single central node, calcualted by comparing centrality of the most central point to the centrality of other points, normalized by dividng by the maximum centralization possible for a netowrk of the given size, ranges from (o- cliques to 1-starnetwork : degree, betweenness, and closeness centralization Centralization: the extent to which a network is dominated by a central node- is one node much more central than the others MEASURES of RELATIONS Freuency of interaction, role relationships (kin,coworkers), reciprocity, duration of relationships/mean duration , closeness/average closeness, multiplexity –number of tie types =between nodes there is more than one connection-stronger ties to be more multiplex than weaker ties SOCIOLOGY’S FOUNDING QUESTION: industrialization, beaucratization, urbanization, geographic mobility, secularization, …rationalization -role of religion is changed, beaucratization means that we govern based on a set of rules/procueds, Wellman: we should redefine the word “community” as those providing social support …..he asks “are people getting the social support that they need?” Starts answering this question by community theories; Community Lost: a small number of weak ties which are not very supportive Community Saved: everything is just hwo it was in the good old days, people have nice sized netowrks and provide support to everyone, the ties are multiplex, dense and local Community Liberated: people have networks, with people in them. They may be nearby or far but many mostly far. The central fiure is getting all the support he needs although each tie is specialized- ultimately they get what they need even though they don’t know eachother WELLMAN STUDY: Ego-Networks in East York One Name generator: who are people outside your home who feel the closest to? Name Interepretors, gender, SES, residence, role relationships, WELLMAN: this is a mixture o
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