Class Notes (809,631)
Canada (493,758)
Sociology (3,206)
SOC101Y1 (985)
Robert Brym (148)

Sociology Chapter 9 Notes.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Robert Brym

Chapter 9: Development and Underdevelopment This Chapter examines: Theories of development Structural roots of underdevelopment Implementation and effects of neoliberalism in global south countries Role of state violence and war in production of poverty in global south countries Forms of resistance to neoliberalism Development Initially development was associated with progress. o The idea of industrialization and democratization of society based on the equal rights and freedoms of its citizens After WWII it became a full blown project that became part of state policy. o Became a process that generated economic growth, industrialization and modernization in regions and countries perceived to be poor, traditional, and underdeveloped. Recently, development has branched out o Progress for women o Empowerment of the underprivileged o Environmental sustainability Interest in development was sparked by: o The Cold War where Soviet Union and United States had an intense competition to amass power by gaining influence and control over less developed countries. o Businesses became interested in new markets for geopolitical and economic reasons Some argue that world capitalism would lead to development while others argue that genuine development cannot occur within the confines of capitalism Relevance of Development and Global Inequalities Development can be looked at in terms of either: o Morality and social justice The worlds desperately poor should be lifted out of a life of illiteracy, disease and hopelessness $3 coffee from Starbucks exceeds the average daily wage of more than a billion people o Self-interest and need for security neighbours poverty would have unpleasant implications for us High levels of violence and unrest that accompany poverty Have to pay higher taxes for police force to maintain order and deal with the impoverished who are angry Failure to raise the living standards of others o The model describes huge differences in income between our neighbours and us and points out the inequality that exists within poor neighbourhoods. o Neighbourhood economy is maintained by a system of power relations bucked up by disproportionate wealth and the ability to exercise violence to protect your wealth. Theories of Development Development in Stages o Societies pass through stages of development and are susceptible to pathologies or diseases o W.W. Rostow argued that social development follows several necessary stages of development o When the society comes into contact with a developed society, science and technology spread and the traditional society is at a stage of possible Takeoff o Takeoff occurs when and if an increase in market transactions, manufacturing and trade takes place o Efficient scientific and technological diffusion moves society faster towards development. Development as a State of Mind o Modernization theory emphasizes the importance of values and norms as drivers of development, the responsibility lies in the third world countries themselves for development o Entrepreneurship the desire for feelings of accomplishment and personal satisfaction. o Societies that encourage entrepreneurial behaviour and competitiveness are most likely to develop economically and socially. o Others emphasize the importance of other values the need for savings, investment, innovation, education, self-control in having children and so on. o In general, modern theorists believe that development happens when the citizens of the poor countries adopt the virtues of the developed North/West Development as Dependency o Each part of the world is shaped by and helps to shape a wider global reality. o It was the nature of the relationship between metropolitan and colonial powers and satellite colonies that blocked economic progress in the global south. o History shows that Africa, the Middle East, China all boasted great civilizations at one point. o Europe invaded Africa and caused pillage and plunders, caused massive death and migration and economic upheaval. Europeans exploited the global south for its riches after conquer existing civilizations. o Gunpowder and firearms helped secure this victory. o Since 1500 the social and economic structures established by the European colonizing powers brought about: Distorted local societies for the benefit of European traders and merchants A local European elite to take valuable minerals to the mother countries, fuelling the development of industry in Western Europe while robbing the global south of their resources The slave trade also undermined traditional state structures and created deep- seated ethnic animosities th In the 19 century the European powers also established artificial boundaries that ignored traditional ethnic spheres of influence and increased ethnic antagonism and warfare. The Slave Trade generated unheard of wealth and gave the European aristocracy and royalty great power, this enabled capital to accumulate and be used for industrialization, spurring European development. Andre Gundar Frank, the historical development of the capitalist system generated underdevelopment in the peripheral satellites. Countries versus Class as Causes of Development Originally the theory was that Western Europe extracted surplus from other areas such as Latin America, Africa and Asia, through unfavourable terms of trade that exploited the lands. o The prices of agricultural goods declined over time relative to the prices of the industrial goods Robert Brenner challenged this theory and revived a Marxist approach that emphasized class relationships. He argued that the struggle among classes to achieve dominance is the
More Less

Related notes for SOC101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.