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SOC383H1: Lecture 2+3

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Monica Boyd

SOC383H1: Lecture 2: Women in Flight September 20 For Lecture 2 and 3 (September 27) we will address the following questions 1- Who is a refugee? 2- What do we know about refugees? How do we know? 3- What causes refugee flows? 4- Responses: refugee camps 5- What happens to women? 6- Resettlement in Canada What motivates women to migrate,move? How do they get into Canada? How is their life in Canada after getting in? 1. What is the definition of a refugee? See Boyd reading. Voluntary migration v.s. involuntary migration=usually refer to trafficking Voluntary as individual has deliberate decision making when migrating Displaced ppl: ppl who are fleeing due to natural disasters or mostly the warfare, genocide... The displacement usually refer to ppl who cannot return to original country. Internally displaced:ppl who have fled their homes but remain within the border of their countries 1.Who is refugee? According to the UN 1951 convention: A refugee is a person who… "... owing to well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country ....”  Reflects an incompatibility btw the applicant and their country of origin 143 countries have signed “Refugee” can have broad meaning a) UN 1951 convention b) those in “refugee like” conditions c) IDP - internally displaced ppl, ppl on move internally d) Refugee claimant/asylum seeker, somebody arriving the countrys border or inside the country, seeking shelter seeks formal recognition of their status and claim to be refugee, 1 What constitutes protection? What constitutes persecution? PROTECTION: Governments are responsible for enforcing a country's laws. May be unable or unwilling to do so, often during a conflict or civil unrest „Unwilling‟- when civil war based on ethnicity, govt try to prosecute not state dominated ethics, e.g. Roma's like jepys originate form India, move to east eu then spread in eu, being prosecuted and subject of selection attention, being object of persecution in WWII Each case handled individually coz not all romas are being prosecuted and some being middle class. So donot classify a group of pop as refugee but handle each refugee claimer individually ESP the primary claimer PERSECUTION: What constitutes persecution is debated a) state-sponsored & focused on individuals, e.g one religion country prosecute citizens with other religious belief;protestants b) widespread social practices & attitudes may also be grounds for persecution ; failure to conform what's socially accepted behaviors e.g. Homosexuals in some country that recognize heterosexual as norm; women refuse to dress in certain way,or not being submissive so at risk of being persecuted Gender-based prosecution: refers to form of harm that are regularly experienced by females and are directly at them b/c of their sex UNHCR= UN high commissioner for refugee 2. What do we know about refugees? Population of concern for UNHCR 35 million % in 2011 Refugees 29.4 (17.1 UNHCR) Asylum seekers 2.5 Stateless 9.8 IDPs (protected) 43.7 Returned IDPs 9.2 Returned refugees 1.5 Other 4.0 2 Where are they concentrated? Is the size big or small? Explain? What is the representation of women among this population? Why? Half are women because the source of refugees are countries of unrest like Under civil war,hence, men are either in the army or recruited fighting against army. So, women flee under unrest. Often the exact refugee stat is hard to collect because they flee out to neighboring country and go back after unrest settles.. 35milion ppl in 2011 deemed to fall under UNHCR mandate Where concentrated and why? - 10.6 mil in Africa -13.6 mil in Asia - 1.4 mil in europe -3.9 mil in latin and C. America -3,900 in N. America -2,500 in Oceana - 7,200mil in other/stateless 3. What are the causes of people in flight? Rooted in geopolitical structure –nation-state What is a nation? Political expression of the nation(many forms) Because of duality in nation, states contain the potential for creation of new states – 3 possiblities A) multinational nation state B) nation state C) Tensions in the nation-state model yield 3 sources of refugee production: 3 a)The suppressions of national identities in multi-nation states; Conflict of “identities” and power -Responses: (1) Create a supra-national identity (2) Create a national identity centered on the dominant group (3) Ethnic cleansing (4) Confederation b) Disagreements over the organization of the state and the economy Arab Spring in March 2010 c) State implosion Ethnic conflict in Rwanda: example of multi- nations/ethics state 3clans- Tutsi, Hutu and Twa 1884: colonized by Germany 1919: colonized by Belgium 1991: Rwanda revolution 1961: independence,one of 3 major tribes took control of the country but all fought be gain/ remain inb power 1994: genocide What is a failed state?- state implosion - no sitting government in control; - no operative justice system; - crumbling infrastructure without resources to maintain it; - lack of social services – schooling, organized medical care; - primitive internal markets, virtually no exports; - banking and monetary systems that have become worthless 4) What happens after flight? What are the needs? What are the challenges and struggles? Relief work (UNHCR, Red Cross, etc):  Registration;  Shelter (tents);  Blankets;  Cooking supplies, stove/oven;  Food;  Clean Water; and 4  Medical Supplies Where do regugees go ? Rural, urban and UNHCR camps In 2009, 59% urban 30%camps Three outcomes for people in flight 1) Preferred solution: voluntary repatriation (eg return) 2) Integration in local host country 3) Resettlement to third country (eg Canada) What happens to women? Are among the most vulnerable; 1) poor resources (gender stratification in origin countries; what level of education the wome have) poor countries always hav disproportionate resource given to women compare to man, sometimes may not be ruled in law but parents chose to put more resource for son who is expected to incur more return I future 2) little physical protection - absent males & poor camp design; 3) also denied full participation in decision making; access to food distribution; education; 4) may lack proper documentation that increases denied resettlement; and 5) rape; abduction; bartering sex Gender issues are central to who gets resettled to Canada - Women and girls are atrdeast 50% of refugee pop - higher in camps -Under-represented in 3 country settlements Why? 2 reasons 1) Selection from abroad, suitability, adaptability issues 2) Who gets to Canada as claimant? Women not as likely - gender norms 5 Lecture 3, 27 September 2012 System hierarchy usually refer to higher statues man and lower statues women Review: Refugee- informal defn as ppl in flight, informal migrants; administrative defn as list of categories UHHCR recognizes;formal defn as appears in1954 convention used in refugee deter nation process Major general questions for September 27, 2012: How is the process of resettlement different for women and men who are “in flight?” What happens to women in camps in terms of resettlement? Three “options” for people in camps. which does UNHCR and many countries prefer? In refugee camps, are among the most vulnerable; 1)poor resource (gender stratification in origin country), resources given to man and so man are more likely educated, women in camp are often under-educated or not educated, but education is important as it gives ppl the mastery over environment 2)little physical protection-absent males (protection from brother to sis, father to daughter, husband to wife) &poor camp design(hot weather and girls being raped) 3) also denied full participation in decision making ;access to food distribution and education 4)may lack proper documentation that increase denied resettlement 5)rape,abductionand used as "wife";bartering sex; Www. 3 options for ppl In refugee camps, 1)preferred solution : voluntary repatrition(eg return); "home" this notion of identity is very powerful, a spot u know society, neighbors, family, no need to struggle,powerful drawback for ppl
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