SOC383 September 26, 2012
Major general questions for September 27, 2012:
How is the process of resettlement different for women and men who are “in flight?”
What happens to women in camps in terms of resettlement?
Refugee is someone who is in flight
Informal – someone who has had to flee
o Definition doesn’t ask if they are a genuine refugee – have to meet the
requirements of UN Commission’s definition
Administrative – including internally displaced persons, refugees claimants,
UNHRC usually informal terminology is used
Formal legalistic – 1951 UN Convention (plausible reason for fearing persecution
based on membership in certain religious, ethnic/ racial groups – state fails to
protect). Hearing and supporting evidence must be present
Females often predominate in camps
Statistics are volatile because the camps and areas around it are subject to huge
population movement. Particularly the case when you have people fleeing because
there is civil war going on in their country.
In refugee camps
Women are among the most vulnerable (50% of camp population)
1) Poor resources (gender stratification in origin countries);
o Privilege is given to men - education is scarce
o Women in camps have low to no education relative to the men
o Education gives people a sense of mastery over their environment and is a
critical ingredient for people to use contraception (cannot have so many children
and look after it), knowledge on how the world works, sense on how they should
situate themselves in the world.
2) Little physical protection - absent males & poor camp designs;
3) Also denies full participation in decision making; access to food distribution;
4) May lack proper documentation that increases denied resettlement; and
5) Rape; abduction; bartering sex
o Abducted and used as wives until no longer wanted or needed.
1) Preferred solution by UN
o Voluntary repatriation (eg return)
o People do want to go home, however, the conditions are unstable
o Eg origin host
o Prefer a flow back. Would not put a strain on the host country's resources for
o with some degree of evidence that people really do want to go back (home is
an important notion)
2) Integration in local host country
o Africa is a major site of refugee populations, Asia
o Afghanistan produces the most refugees. As a result, many Afghans are
located in Pakistan SOC383 September 26, 2012
o Many host countries find these populations problematic, refugees have no
skills, are economically poor. Host countries usually already have scarce
land that can be cultivated, cities are overcrowded
o Force re-migration (refoulment)
3) Resettlement to third country (eg Canada)
o 2 ways refugees can gain entry to Canada
i. Selected from outside Canada, enters with appropriate visa
ii. Show up at border (claim refugee status – “refugee claimant”)
Airport, border of Niagara Falls – put in safe houses because their
destination is Canada, fill papers, undergo formal processes
Sex Ratio: Number of Men per 100 Women
Entering As PR in Refugee Class, Age 25-44
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Resettlement in Canada from outside
Gender issues are cent to who gets resettled to Canada
women and girls are at least 50% of refugee pop - higher in camps
under represented in 3rd country settlements
o Lack of resources - underpaid, have to pay for way out.
o Sheer of danger of traveling on your own without fairly strong protection from
Resettlements in Canada
Why? 2 reasons
1) Selection from abroad, suitability, adaptability issues
o Gender stratification = low education, kids
i. Women may have a lot of children, lack education because of their perceived
role as a caregiver, religious background may add to this notion.
o Gender stratification = not important
o Men goes first, women have no resources or education.
2) Who gets to Canada as claimant?
o Women not as likely - gender norms SOC383 September 26, 2012
Gender-based analysis is a process that assesses the differential impact of
proposed and/or existing policies, programs and legislation on women and men.
Suitability and adaptability issues
o Third countries skim the cream off the top. When someone is selected from
abroad, they need to be ensured that they can make their way in Canada
o Admissibility criteria: education, language skills, work experience, likely income,
Welfare, subsidized housing will be required for a while
Women more likely to remain in camps
Gender is an organizing principle – determines how much education a woman gets,
Who is "selected" for settlement
Selection from abroad, could use criteria of "suitability"
What does suitabili