SOC383 September 13, 2012
Today’s lecture will cover 3 topics:
1) Overview of the term
2) “Discovery” of Women Migrants
b. Number & types
a. Evolving approaches in the study and understanding of the situation of
Definition of international migration
o A permanent change in residency by crossing a political boundary: province,
country, city-internal migrant
o International migrant – out of national boundary
Internal migration: within the country
When citizenship is conferred by birthplace, and a person lives in another country for
years, they are NOT an international migrant when they come back to Canada or the
U.S. for example.
International migrant are usually described as foreign born, although there are
Temporary residence: part of international migrants, but have changed their living
Definition of migrant
o Students who are here temporarily, illegal people, people admitted for PR
(applying for immigrant status)
TYPES OF MIGRANTS
Legal migrants (also referred to as regular migrant)
o Migrants have legal status, rights (?)
o Temporary residence – tend to overstay
E.g. visiting relative – just stay for a month, no one will notice.
o Permanent residence
Irregular migrants (also referred to as undocumented migrant)
o No legal status, limited or no rights (without formal authority)
o Related to overstaying (e.g. after workers visa has expired)
o Destination usually not Canada, but US – higher need for labour (exploit),
Problem: Canada does not collect data on emigration (exiting)
Census – overstay/temporaries tend to report themselves
Prof. Boyd recommends the film Invisible Nation (http://www.onf-
WHAT IS MEANT BY (IM)MIGRATION POLICY?
o A policy is an instrument for identifying major goals, matched by a specific
means to achieve them. SOC383 September 13, 2012
o Goals or plans, practices, and regulations adopted by a government or other
organization that are designed to guide or control institutional and community
Canadian immigration policy – flow coming from one country to another
o Permanent residence, purposes of work/study (determines who’s allowed to
o Policy of family reunification
o Policy of recruiting highly skilled persons
Canadian migration policy – what do we do when a migrant comes to Canada to
o Language training courses offered by Canadian government (LINC)
o Only 20% of those who are eligible take it
o Canadian government funds not-for-profit agencies to teach English
Sweden’s policy – 100 people admitted per year. Very intense courses on
o Has a system of collecting data and because of this, illegal immigration is not
prevalent. Another reason why illegal immigration is not prevalent is racial.
Most people coming into Sweden and Somalian and stand out in comparison
to native born Swedes.
BRINGING MIGRANT WOMEN INTO THESE GENERAL DISCUSSION
In Canada, inflow of migrant women is reflected by policy, targets of policy since late
Male Scout Model: Men were seen as the primary migrant – women and children
come later when the husband is established and able to care for them.
o This means that most of the women immigrants are either wives or family
members. No single applicants.
o This idea relates to the notion that men are the primary breadwinner. Also,
birthrate in the early 1900s were unregulated. Harder to attain birth control.