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SOC102H1 (261)
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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Colonialism and the Wealth of Nations.docx

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Lecture 7: Colonialism and the Wealth of Nations  Many Mediterranean countries in EU are on edge of bankruptcy  Religious and cultural struggle between these countries  do not share the same values / ideas on where to spend money  All the countries are lenders and borrowers of money  Said it is the beginning of a new German empire  they are becoming the dominant voice of EU given their current, healthy economic position  What is the relationship between debtors and creditors?  Several aspects of social inequality linked to colonization. o Differentiation (as with Orientalism)  Mythologization o Economic exploitation o Political domination o Racialization o Victimization  troops sent to save Iraqi civiliams kill them in the process (probably not intentionally)  IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS o Regions  mainly geographical, economic, and ecological units  Share common ecology, lifestyle, culture  Sometimes within nations, sometimes across nations o Nations  political units, often coincide with state  Sometimes within a society, nation is separate from state  Quebec as French-speaking “nation” of Canada o Empires  Historical role of colonialism (in Canada and elsewhere) o Canada is an unintended result of Brit and French colonial wars  “accidental creation” o Happened through displacement and murder of people living in place being economically opened up; colonizing powers seeking resources o After colonizing powers leave, all sorts of crazy things happen and the area is difficult to become a nation o Canada is a nation, but it has no national identity  Ex. Nothing in common between Nova Scotia and Alberta (other than in same country)  Nations often require nationalism to achieve national unity o Nationalism: an emphasis on the nation-state above all else o National character - “USA! USA! USA!”;; strong identification of nation-state and WITH nation- state  Absent in Canada  Bad side in nationalism: people feel SUPERIOR over other nations  Ethnic nationalism o Ethnically homogenous (sharing of language, culture, view citizenship as blood  being born to people from that country in that country) o Difficult to accept outsiders (ex. immigrant)  Nationalism: a form of parochialism o USA said to be a civil religion  Set of beliefs associated with nation-state  There are rituals, ceremonies, deep emotional attachment, ritual objects  Things you find normally in religion are found in civil religion of USA o Accomplish goal of unity using technique of religion despite lack of ethnic homogeneity  Religious nationalism o Nations need something to hold them together across diversity of region, ethnicity, etc. in order for political unit to act unified, in order to assume/take advantage of people willing to make sacrifices o Nationalism can do this. Modern source of solidarity o If you can’t rely on religion, you rely on nationalism to get people together  Nationalism fills the value vacuum o Tremendous vacuum created by collapse of official Marxism-Leninism in post-communist Russia  Problem with nationalism is that it tends to parochialism  self-congratulatory, expansionalist POV  going out and telling other countries what to do  Defining colonialism o Establishment by more-developed countries of formal political control over less-developed areas  Colonialism = imperialism o is nationhood gone abroad o imperialism means empire building, intent on building an empire o historically via. Military, presently can be via economically through borrowing money from a country (indebtedness)  The death of traditional colonialism  Imperialism: what is it? o ANY control/domination of less-developed by more-developed countries  Theories about the causes of imperialism o Schumpeter  imperialism is about military wanting to go out and steal stuff,  Marxist theories of imperialism o Capitalism is by nature expansionalist  Capitalist countries will always be expanding out of its country  Dealing with capitalism will require dealing with it in ALL countries (not just 1_ o Imperialism is the highest stage of capitalism  Strategic or Political theories o Went down beat everybody so they couldn’t beat you up  Neo-colonialism: a related concept o dominant/subordinate relations still reminant after collapse of empire, still a relation in terms of economy  Not maintained by military presence but through  The centre and periphery o Explains relations of exchange (esp. economic)  Shows “One is rich, other is poor, one is advantaged, other disadvantaged etc.” o Flow of capital from periphery to capital o Flow of raw materials from periphery to capital o People in periphery are encouraged to view American goods as superior  westernization  wanting to emulate American, British lifestyle, cultures  Cultural domination follows economic domination  Role of transnational corporations o Who are the main actors here? Whose doing exploiting? 
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