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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 How does inequality harm people.docx

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hOw does inequality harm people? What inequality does  Highly correlated with sickness, crime and conflict  Disempowers o Deprives them of resources (ex. income inequality)  Easy to measure income inequality  Disconnects o Tends to isolate people o Reduce trust, communucation, interaction  Many of us rely on info from others  Disinforms o Giving people different amount of information  Our society runs on info so v. important  Devalues o As a society, we are very concerned about self-esteem, sense of worth, reputation Recent study at UofT finds that  Different hospitals treat different patients of different classes differently  Studied ALL admissions into Toronto hospitals  FOUND THAT o Low income people shoved into portions of least functional, helpful portions of healthcare system  o High income people more likely to receive same-day surgery  Bad because you can pick-up sickness from hospital  High income people tend to enter via. Emergency  They also have a network of doctor people to help them o Ex. poor people less likely to have personal physician  LOW INCOME kept in acute care hospital beds  where bad sicknesses are EVERYWHERE (bathing in  More likely to be hospitalized from mental health problems o Unclear whether the rich tend to enter private hospitals (thu out of sample) or whether poor have more mental health problems o SUMMARY: POOR PEOPLE ARE WAREHOUSED  Wealthy: More access to primary healthcare, medicines, healthy foods, tend to live in healthy places, can afford homecare Social inequality = healthcare inequality  Not every kind of health care is provided (even to Canadians) o Ex. prescription medications are not covered under Medicare (Canadian Health Plan) o Dental care o Most vision care o Psychiatrists and psychologists o Long-term homecare services  Current concerns o Many things uncovered by public health care plan  rich people will have more access to it o GREATEST CONCERN: aging society with less young people paying bills  Longer we keep people alive, the greater the strain on young people Research on inequality illustrates population health perspective  Population health focuses on how to not get people sick  Doctors focus on how to get sick people better  Japan doing better with healthcare than US, Canada in between o Has to do with inequality Differences in vulnerability  Ex. people in dangerous jobs, don’t get enough food/sleep, don’t have proper living/working conditions  get sick more o These are often related to economic/social inequalities Life expectancy  Life expectancies can remarkably vary in the same country  Unequal health risks o Due to lifestyle choices o Related to social class o Variations then can also be related to lifestyle differences as a result of differences in social class Role of class inequality  Whitehall studies uses record of British Civil Service o Just like the records of hospital, they are well kept  IT IS A BUREAUCRACY  obliged to get checkups and have records of health-related absences in British Civil services o Related mortality to GRADE of people in BCS o They had lifestyle information that they could control for (ex. smokers) o FOUND THAT higher mortality rates for men of lower employment grades  Only differences was in RANK  NOT DUE TO LIFESTYLE DIFFERENCES  People at bottom more likely to die from coronary problems (CHD: Coronary Heart Disease) Other working conditions also important  Jobs that are least desirable are also the most fatal (ex. waitressing) o Jobs have little control  Ex. Waitress can be yelled at, don’t receive tip o University is likely to relieve you of necessity of having such a
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