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Lecture notes Gender Inequality Political and Economic Aspe..
Lecture notes Gender Inequality Political and Economic Aspects 2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 7 Gender Inequality: Economic and PoliticalAspects 1. Gender Inequality in Labor Market: Inequalities in the labor market can take a number of forms: 1) Disparities in wages by sex: Women earn 73% wages of men; Cross occupation: female-dominant occupation less than male-dominant occupation; 2) Vertical occupational segregation: A. Vertical segregation refers to the clusteri聚聚() of men and women in different levels of jobs. B. Hierarchical difference of female and male within occupation or cross occupation; C. For example, this might mean in an organization more men than women working as senior managers and more women than men working in administrative grades. (Male occupies relatively higher position than female does.) D. Glass Ceiling: the glass ceiling is the unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements. 3) Horizontal occupational segregation: A. Horizontal segregation refers to the numbers of men and women in different types of jobs. B. In a public authority, for example, this might mean that there are more women working as cleaners and more men working as maintenance workers. C. In the society, different jobs available for women and men; for example, more manager positions may be available to men rather than women. 4) Example: Data of U of T: Showing gender inequality in educational system: Promotional structure in U of T: Assistant Professor-> Associate Professor-> Professor. As the educational ranking gets higher and higher, the gender inequality becomes more significant. The data shows that less women are got promoted even the entry level of female and male is similar. 2. Theories of Gender Inequality in Labor Market: 1) Occupational Segregation: A. Occupational segregation is understood as the concentration of men and women:in different kinds of jobs (horizontal segregation) or in different grades (vertical segregation). B. Occupational segregation is one of the barriers which prevents women and men from fulfilling their potential in the labor market, and consequently contributes to the pay gap. Women tend to be concentrated in the lower paid jobs (e.g. caring, catering, cleaning, clerical, cashiering) and the lower grades within an organization. C. Two forms of occupational segregation: I) Internal Labor Market/ Short Promotion Ladders (Vertical segregation) Example 1: The example of internal structure of grocery store indicates that women get less potential promotion than men have. Example 2: Nursing Nursing is a female-dominant occupation which only 5% men work for nursing. However, male staff dominates hospital instead of female staff. Medical authority figures are mostly men. This example indicates that even in a female-dominant occupation, men get faster promotion than women have. Example 3: Medical Degree: Pediatric Nutrition Pediatric nutrition is one of the medical subject which requires understanding of child body structure and also requires skills of getting alone well with children. Why more women work for pediatric nutrition than men do? (Related to female characteristics.) a. Women are usually associated with mothering characteristics; b. Connect to female features such as being compassion, caring, patience; c. Stereotyping: good at getting well with children while men cannot be; When coming to work, why women gain less prestige and get less paid than men? It is not because of skills requirement; Historical problem; ambitious; superiority; natural instincts; II) Horizontal Occupational Segregation/ Incomparable Worth Even people (most women) work for nursing which requires more patience, have to watch people die and need to deal with horrible sickness, they still get less paid compare to repaired work sometimes. What is job worth? What social structure worth? Mothering and caring work are devalued by the society. 2) Human Capital: A. Defined: Human capital composite measure of a worker’s commitment to the job(聚 聚 聚 聚 聚 聚 ), educational attainment 聚聚聚聚聚聚 and job experience. B. Women have lower productivity than men have: Women have less human capital than men so that they are less productive which cause employers are more willing to hire male workers rather than female workers. C. Women have less opportunities of additional training: Women are offered less occupational training compare to men. D.
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