Lecture 7 Gender Inequality: Economic and PoliticalAspects
1. Gender Inequality in Labor Market:
Inequalities in the labor market can take a number of forms:
1) Disparities in wages by sex:
Women earn 73% wages of men;
Cross occupation: female-dominant occupation less than male-dominant occupation;
2) Vertical occupational segregation:
A. Vertical segregation refers to the clusteri聚聚() of men and women in different levels of
B. Hierarchical difference of female and male within occupation or cross occupation;
C. For example, this might mean in an organization more men than women working as senior
managers and more women than men working in administrative grades. (Male occupies relatively
higher position than female does.)
D. Glass Ceiling: the glass ceiling is the unseen, yet unbreakable barrier that keeps
minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder,
regardless of their qualifications or achievements.
3) Horizontal occupational segregation:
A. Horizontal segregation refers to the numbers of men and women in different types of
B. In a public authority, for example, this might mean that there are more women working as
cleaners and more men working as maintenance workers.
C. In the society, different jobs available for women and men; for example, more manager
positions may be available to men rather than women.
4) Example: Data of U of T: Showing gender inequality in educational system:
Promotional structure in U of T:
Assistant Professor-> Associate Professor-> Professor. As the educational ranking gets higher and
higher, the gender inequality becomes more significant. The data shows that less women are got
promoted even the entry level of female and male is similar.
2. Theories of Gender Inequality in Labor Market:
1) Occupational Segregation: A. Occupational segregation is understood as the concentration of men and women:in different
kinds of jobs (horizontal segregation) or in different grades (vertical segregation).
B. Occupational segregation is one of the barriers which prevents women and men from fulfilling
their potential in the labor market, and consequently contributes to the pay gap. Women tend to be
concentrated in the lower paid jobs (e.g. caring, catering, cleaning, clerical, cashiering) and the
lower grades within an organization.
C. Two forms of occupational segregation:
I) Internal Labor Market/ Short Promotion Ladders (Vertical segregation)
Example 1: The example of internal structure of grocery store indicates that women get less
potential promotion than men have.
Example 2: Nursing
Nursing is a female-dominant occupation which only 5% men work for nursing. However, male
staff dominates hospital instead of female staff. Medical authority figures are mostly men. This
example indicates that even in a female-dominant occupation, men get faster promotion than
Example 3: Medical Degree: Pediatric Nutrition
Pediatric nutrition is one of the medical subject which requires understanding of child body
structure and also requires skills of getting alone well with children.
Why more women work for pediatric nutrition than men do?
(Related to female characteristics.)
a. Women are usually associated with mothering characteristics;
b. Connect to female features such as being compassion, caring, patience;
c. Stereotyping: good at getting well with children while men cannot be;
When coming to work, why women gain less prestige and get less paid than men?
It is not because of skills requirement;
Historical problem; ambitious; superiority; natural instincts;
II) Horizontal Occupational Segregation/
Even people (most women) work for nursing which requires more patience, have to watch people
die and need to deal with horrible sickness, they still get less paid compare to repaired work
What is job worth? What social structure worth?
Mothering and caring work are devalued by the society.
2) Human Capital:
A. Defined: Human capital composite measure of a worker’s commitment to the job(聚 聚 聚 聚 聚 聚 ), educational attainment 聚聚聚聚聚聚 and job experience.
B. Women have lower productivity than men have:
Women have less human capital than men so that they are less productive which
cause employers are more willing to hire male workers rather than female workers.
C. Women have less opportunities of additional training:
Women are offered less occupational training compare to men.