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HOI Ch. 5 Victimization Pg. 171 More than a headline -Jamie Hubley’s suicide in Kanata Ontario; was bullied, and was openly gay; pg. 172 2009, 202 Canadian teens ages 15-19 took their lives; suicide accounts for quarter of deaths at that age -C.J. Pascoe Dude, You’re a Fag; book explaining how boys say this to make masculine boundaries Pg. 173 Social Construction -social construction: something that is a product of our social context -social context matters; eg. Defining homosexual; someone who only did it once in the past, someone doing it regularly, occasionally, etc. -pg. 174; Why is our society so enamoured with homosexuality? Has to do with our fascination and confusion about sex in general; think about 2 hypothetical scenarios; 1 society where sex was pleasure, other being defining sex as a social construct; deviancy impossible, because “normal” preferences do not exist -homosexuality is difficult to define; is it an act? Preference? Identity? Is it occasional, regular or permanent? Pg. 175 Sexuality is also multi-layered; leads to development of “sociology of sex” -but, the social factors help contribute to construction of sexuality and its conception; eg. 30 years ago, homo. (homosexuality) was viewed as legal medical condition; in 2005, Canada became 4th country to legalize gay marriage w/ Civil Marriage Act -however, still discrimination against gays today (In spite of the progress) Pg, 176 Define Normal -Sexologist Alfred Kinsey; experimental research done in 1950s during “Victorian prudery”; surveyed American sexual practices; -pg. 177 surprising results; Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale, a seven-point continuum showing sophisticated understanding of sexual taste; found people changed sexuality throughout their lives; people are actually a mix of homo and hetero. -1980s, Maria Valverde; pg. 178 hetero. being “normal” argument rooted in idea that hetero. Came about by mother nature so man would not leave woman with child, would take care of them, in exchange for sexual favours/pleasures from the woman - illogical theory (see pg. 178 for reasons) -Karin Martin; heteronormativity: that hetero. Is to be taken for granted as normal; its spread relies on “social institutions, practices, and norms that support hetero.” -Martin used theories to explore parent’s contribution to shaping child’s sexuality; moms take hetero. For granted in their child, constructing views and experiences on this; occur by 2 practices; pg. 179 1. Moms create world for children where only hetero. Exists (i.e. Project hetero view onto them, eg friends of same gender called “friends”, while opposite called “girl” or “boy” friend) 2. When moms accept possibility of homo. , try to actively promote hetero. -children can choose to accept, alter or resist mom’s messages; mom’s not to be blamed though; mom’s don’t want to be deemed “bad mother” by deviating from conventional method, and don’t want kid to be victimized; -heterosexism; belief in superiority of hetero. ; potential to victimize homo. -pg, 180 Bull’s Eye -homosexuals roughly 1% of population; easy to be victimized; victimology: area of soc. concerned with victims of crime Pg. 181 [pg. 181 para 2 for victim stats]; victims of good conscience: those that cannot deny who they are and so face rejection and danger at the price of staying true to themselves; people like this have changed society; viewed as hero in new age, viewed as bad by ruling society of the time Homophobia, Geroge Weinberg, 1972; helped challenge societies anti-gay prejudice -pg. 182 believe anti-homo. subculture response to organized homo. subculture; essentialism: belief that all homo. have same characteristics; 1954 Gordon Allport proposed this was part of a prejudiced personality; essen. - pg. 183 Belief about sexual orientation vary along two dimensions; immutability of sexual orientation and fundamentality of classification of hetero. and homo. Hold stronger anti-gay attitudes if they believe people have choice in their sex orientation; those that believe homo. is a choice also think people had negative hetero. encounters encouraging them to be gay, and positive encounters enforcing same result; also believe people become homo. because of strong mom and weak dad -pg. 184 Gregory Herek: anti-homo. beliefs grounded in: 1. Sexual stigma (stigmatization: holding non-hetero behaviour in low regard) 2. Heterosexism (above) 3. Sexual prejudice: holding negative attitudes towards people based on their sexual orientation -where do beliefs come from, how do they arise, why still around today? -4 factors influencing anti-homo. 1. Openness to human diversity 2. Openness to sexual diversity 3. Familiarity w/ homo. 4. Membership in an anti-homo. culture - (describing above) 1. Theodor Adorno; authoritarian thinking usually most anti-homo, i.e conservative thinking 2. Kinsley institute finds: Robert Fay + Coworkers, people w/ more sexual experience are more accepting 3. Larger area (eg. City) = more accepting, because of more opportunities for encounter pg. 186 (Gregory Herek and Erik Glunt found personal contact w/ homo. resulted in more accepting attitude) 4. Anissa Helie (2004): in 83 countries where homo. is punishable, often follows from fundamentalist religion than laws -research indicates another big predictor of anti-gay sentiment is sex-role rigidity (idea of essential difference bet
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