Class Notes (839,242)
Canada (511,223)
Sociology (3,264)
SOC102H1 (261)
Teppermann (78)
Lecture

chapter 2

7 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC102H1
Professor
Teppermann

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Description
Chapter 2 inequality • “false consciousness” an acceptance of the discourse and values of the dominant class and willingness to believe arguments that promote individualistic solution to problems, or that blame the poor and the unemployed for their problems • workers may be alienated • workers and bosses struggle for control • critical element was a development of class awareness and class consciousness. Oppressed classes can bring about change only after they become aware of their position • functional theory of stratification – maintains that most people in most industrial societies agree about relative social value of particular roles - e.g. Doctors receive more money than teachers and worth more - therefore clerks and teachers can be easily replace than doctors • their prestige and social value can be stable over time and vary little from each society • this means that inequalities of wealth, authority and respect are to some degree based on shared values However • cannot explain the difference between top paid and bottom paid workers is wide or narrow • cannot explain why some people get high salaries regardless of whether they confer a social benefit - e.g. How movie stars paid • not all inequalities in Canada and US is due to exploitation in the form that Marx imagined Class formation requires the growth of class consciousness and four important changes 1) identifying themselves as members of an exploited class 2) seeing that the owners of the means of production are their enemy 3) realizing that everything is at stake in the battle for equality 4) recognizing that societal change is possible through conflict The Vertical Mosaic • people from humble backgrounds who perform very well at university and risen through the organizational ranks into position of ever increasing authority- may acquire the opportunity to work and socialize with people who have inherited their wealth and power - engineering, management, accounting and law are especially good ladders – this can happen regardless of their class origin • Social Mobility: the movement of individuals from one social class to another during the course of one's lifetime - it has its limits, its very hard to enter the upper class or escaping the lower class • “” what makes its possible is “Higher Education” to solve Social Mobility • people who are more socially mobile are more likely to gain opportunities to interact with people of higher social classes • educated people are more likely to interact with people of lower social classes • people with more education have larger, more diverse social network • educated people know many people hwo also know many people Measuring Poverty • absolute poverty: lack of basic necessities (food, shelter, medicine) for basic survival. Starvation is an example of absolute poverty • Relative Poverty: survival, but far below the general living standards of the society or social group in which poor live; affects people's lives in dramatic ways • deciding what makes up poverty is difficult • Poverty Line: it represents a usual standard of living and differs across countries. The definition of poverty varies by society, within societies and also over time • Low-income Cut Offs: measuring relative poverty based on the percentage of income devoted to daily necessities (food, shelter, clothing) and determined both regionally and by population size • “” more devoted than the average family would p.34 bottom • Low-income measures: a set of figures representing 50 percent of the median ' adjusted family income” actual incomes are compared with LIMS to determine whether or not a family can be considered “low-income” • Market-Basket measure: it is based on an imaginary basket of market-priced goods and service and on the income needed to purchase the items in the basket. The determination of what foes into this imaginary basket tends to exclude all but absolute essential of bare survival - design to define and measure poverty in absolute not relative terms • “” what goes in the “basket” is not determined by those who must try to survive on it but bureaucrats or right-leaning think-tanks Measuring Well-being and inequalities Birth, literacy, GDP per capita • Human Development Index (HDI) : a combined measure of achievement in three basic areas: a long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge as measured by adult and youth literacy and standard of living, as measured by the natural logarithm of the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita • HDI does not accurately reflect the extend of important differences among the world's most developed countries, therefore they use a second variant of the human poverty index (HDI-2) • HD2 – asses relative deprecation in the same dimensions: 1) vulnerability to premature death, as measured by the likelihood at birth by not suriving to age 60 2) exclusion from reading and communications as measured by adult illiteracy 3) a deprived standard of living, as measured by the percentage of the population living below the income poverty line and social exclusion as measured by the rate of long term employment • Canada falls 9 in the world - the standard of living is not spread evenly • Gini Coefficient : a perfect score of 0 on the index reflects total income equality across a society, while a score of 1 reflects total income inequality e.g. 1000 among 1000 people, if every person receives 1, the Gini index would be 0, if one person receive 1000 and the remaining 99 people receive 0, the Gini index would be 1 • Canada has has Gini index score of 0.32 or 0.33 Poverty in Canada • Canada has been described as “racialized destitute and young” • racial minorities earn much less on average than their white counterparts and are also more likely to experience unemployment and and underemployment • Recent immigrants who have arrived in Canada in the past 5 years have earn less than Canada born because they are unable to gain acceptance of their foreign Credentials • some group never reach equity • Alack of employment opportunities combined with a senes of cultural isolation has resulted in economic, social and health conditions that are in some instance as bad or worse than those found the least developed countries of the world Aboriginal poverty of Joblessness – two forms 1) unemployment can be understood as out of work but seeking employment 2) many other Canadians are out of work while not seeking employment often because there is no opportunities • the rate is high because these communities are in remote ares with few job opportunities • structural mechanism ensures the poorest Canadians remain poor • the poorest of the poor lose proportional the most during economic recessions and gain the least during times of prosperity • large numbers of Canadians move out and in of poverty • unrelenting poverty in Canada is relatively rare Poverty As an Urban Problem • urban poverty is the lack of affordable housing for low-income families and individuals • affordable housing is scare 1) the ownership of rental housing is being concentrated in the hands of a few property owners 2) developers stand to make larger profits by investing in housing solely for the middle and upper classes • when affordable housing is available it is often found in city neighbourhoods that are economically stagnant and physically decayed • two parent families with children are the most rapidly increasing category of shelter-using poor The Homeless • when rent prices increase or owners change rental units into owner-occupied condominiums, many families are forced onto the streets and into shelters, while others must live in crowded conditions with parents, other relatives and friends • Poverty is the leading cause of homelessness – has grown 6 times faster since 2005 • the homeless is varied mix of people who are free from substance or alcohol abuse and willing to work • “” some may even have jobs but lack enough income to pay the rent on the cheapest city apartment • homeless are young, some ran away from home and rather live on the streets s than under the same roof with abusive parents • families of runaways tend to give their child less suport, supervision and acceptance than other families --- research says parents of runaways had a history of running away from home too • runaways remain on the streets, their belief that family conflict is inevitable, some grow to be homeless adults • therefore homeless adults have higher than average rates of criminal behavior • p.41 (chart) Theoretical Perspectives on Poverty Structural Functionalism • consist o
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