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University of Toronto St. George

Sociology ― Globalization Globalization is a social, economic, and political process that makes it easier for people, goods, ideas, and capital to travel around the world at an extraordinary pace. Essentially making the world look and feel smaller. Globalization as a process means it is neither naturally good or bad. It has an impact on the environment and every single human being in a different way. (e.g. digital divide, inequality of access to means of communication) Top-down globalization involves the actions of groups promoting globalized capitalism and free trade Neoliberal (supports privatization and free trade etc.) economic policies: 1. Move away from state spending and regulation 2. Responsibility for one's own welfare 3. Less protection for labour and the environment 4. Privatization of state resources 5. Faith in the power of the market Globalization from below: the actions of groups that criticize the injustices that result from globalization processes. It encompasses multiple perspectives: 1. Moderate critiques of neoliberalism 2. Radical anti-capitalist positions 3. Various forms of anarchism (lawlessness) 4. Armed peasant uprisings 5. Fair-trade coffee projects Capitalists Financial Capital (in economic terms): money used for investment, currency trading (98% of money exchanged on any given day is not tied to goods and services) Overcapacity: Global corporations (TNCs―Transitional Corporations, approach from a global perspective rather than a centralized headquarter by spreading out their operations in multiple countries sustaining high levels of local responsiveness e.g. Nestle) are producing more things that the world's consumers can afford Centralization: Corporations have merged to stay competitive, blending different industries together. Companies play nation-states off one another, pressuring governments to lower tax rates by threatening to move production to more favourable locations ( worldwide corporate tax rate is 25.9 % in 2008 and significant drop from 31.4 % in 1999) Critics of corporate power demand more accountability on the part of corporations. While the global economy has made a portion of the world's population wealthy, at least 50 % is still considered poor. StateAutonomy ( a self-governing community) is being threatened because of.. Supra-national organizations. The SNO puts pressure on nations to do things such as decrease social spending, privatize state-run industries etc. (basically adopt Neoliberal policies) Supra-national: organizations that put pressures on nations to deregulate capital markets, remove price subsidies, decrease social spending etc. Democratic Deficit: ordinary citizens are disenfranchised (deprive someone of the right to vote) from the process of governance due to The Three Sisters: International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank (WB), World Trade Organization (WTO) Global Consumer Global Commodity Chain: is a worldwide network of labor and production processes, end result is a finished product. Power is distributed unevenly along the chain. Consumerism: a way of life, one's identity and purpose is orientated primarily to purchase and consume of material goods. The biggest U.S export is mass-produced products of pop-culture. While many countries would like to protect their cultural products (e.g. films, magazines etc.) the World Trade Org. has prohibited states from using grants and quotas (shares) to protect domestic and cultural products. Culture as a product (commodity) Cultural Imperialism: domination of one culture over another (e.g. al-jareeza and Bollywood as two counter examples) ConsumerAlternatives Bottom-up (anti-globalization): environmentally sustainable products produced by well-paid workers Fair-trade movement: 1. arguing that producers should be paid a fair price rather than the free market price (pre- determined default price) 2. must convince consumers to pay more (for coffee for example) Sustainable Consumption 20 % of the world's population consumes 66 % of the world's resources and creates 75 % of the waste and pollution Sustainable Consumption: lies somewhere between the over consumers and under consumers 1. eat moderate amount of food (Especially meat) 2. rely primarily on sustainable forms of transportation (Public transportation, walking) 3. consume minimal amounts of raw materials in daily life Global Workers While capital moves across borders, unions and workers are primarily organized within states Outsourcing: moving jobs from one labor market to a cheaper labor market (e.g.America to India) Sub-employment: working poor, workers have work but it is poorly underpaid, nonunionized Export Processing Zones (EPZs): governments create special financial incentives for corporations 1. tax holidays 2. preferential rates for electricity and telecommunication 3. special exemptions from national labor laws Wage competitions pits workers against one another in a "race to the bottom" . Anti-sweatshop movement has rises in responses to this phenomenon. Think Globally, Eat Locally: 1. encouraging local food consumption 2. defend local agricultural ecosystems 3. use global networks (communication that spans the Earth) to fight these battles United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (series of 8 to be achieved by 2015): 1. Achieve universal primary education 2. reduce child mortality 3. improve maternal health 4. Promote gender equality and empower women Pros and Cons of Globalization Pro (advocates): breakdown of all trade and investment barriers, pushing rapidly towards global integration Con (critics): should be allowed only if labor and environment standards are protected Sociology ― Global Inequality Development (progress): a process that generated economic growth, industrialization and modernization in regions and countries perceived to be poor, traditional and undeveloped. More recently it has had a broader meaning, progress for women, empowerment of the underprivileged and environmental sustainability The study and analysis of development has served to support world capitalism an economic system based on competitive enterprises seeking to maximise profits by wage labour Why should you care about development? ― two perspectives, mortality and social justice or self-interest and security The majority of people see it as morally repugnant that some people earn less than a dollar a day. They consider it a matter of social justice that the world's desperately poor be lifted out of a life of illiteracy, disease and hopelessness. e.g. find it absurd that the average Canadian student spends more at Starbucks than a person makes in a day Other people consider practical reasons, more people in the world than we can sustain.. Development in Stages The contemporaryAmerican market is considered the ultimate stage. Just like humans and plants pass stages of development, so do societies therefore susceptible to pathologies (science of cause and effect of disease) and disease. W.W Rostov argued that society develops in stages, in the beginning we might be traditional, undeveloped. When coming into contact with a developed society, science and technology spreads and the traditional society enters a stage of possible "takeoff." (takeoff occurs if and when increase in market transactions, manufacturing takes place) The faster the society moves all the path of development, the easier barriers are removed to spread the market relations and the more efficiently scientific and technological diffusion (distribution) occurs. Modernization Theory: emphasizes importance of values and norms (e.g. David McClelland argued that importance of entrepreneur "need for achievement" is the desire for feelings of accomplishment and personal satisfaction. People with a high need for accomplishment become successful entrepreneurs. According to modernization, development happens when poor countries adopts virtues of the "developed North" Dependency Theory: lack of development is due to deficiencies of less developed countries , established that the nature of the relationship between metropolitan powers and satellite regions that blocked economic progress in the global south. Core: major sources of capital and technology (e.g. USA, Japan, Germany) Periphery: major sources of raw materials and cheap labour Semi-periphery: former colonies that are making major headway in their attempts to become prosperous (e.g. South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore etc.) The Slave Trade Undermined traditional state structures and created deep-seated animosities. Slavery enabled capital to accumulate, capital that industrialists would later use to encourage European development. Development in Canada Canada achieved independence in 1867. Before that it was a number of British colonies, controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company which was incorporated by the British Charter in 1670. How did Canada become prosperous despites it's past? Much of the wealth the Europeans settlers produced was reinvested locally. Canada's geopolitical (study of effects of geography) position helped by serving as a major supplier of raw materials and manufactured goods. (e.g. airplanes for WW2) Finally, Canadian state policy protected and stimulated industrial growth. E.g. the 1879 National Policy established a duty on imported goods by making foreign goods more expensive. Jared Diamond "History followed different courses for different peoples because of differences among peoples' environments." He distinguished between proximate (immediate) and ultimate (fundamental) causes of development. Development of weapons by Europeans were the proximate causes of the defeat of the established. Why did the Europeans alone enjoy such early advantages of weapons? In other words what were the ultimate causes of European development? Diamond argues the geological features of continents and biological resources available were fundamentally important. Therefore for Diamond, the early domestication of plants and animals made agriculture possible and was a prerequisite for development of guns, germs and steel that ensured the dominance of Europeans colonizers in the Americas, Asia and Africa. Criticisms of Diamonds Theory: Ignores the mountain ranges and deserts that surely obstructed the domestication of animals and plants.Also ignores crucial political factors, e.g. Europe's trade withAsia was cut off in the 15th century so European merchants were encouraged to create marine transportation technology, cartographic knowledge (study and practice of making maps) and navigation. The Neoliberal Era ― The Rise of Neoliberalism In recent years the Neoliberal theory of economic development has become influential.Acentral idea, only in societies where markets are free of government interference can competitive entrepreneurs maximize economic growth for the benefit of themselves and the rest of society. This idea was not always popular, e.g. The Great Depression in the 1930s when NorthAmerican unemployment rate reached 30 %. John Keynes, government should intervene in the market. Its polices favoured massive government spending to stimulate the economy and establish public enterprises where the market had failed to provide alternatives. The "Keynesian" approach to economic development worked well for 4 decades, by 1970 difficulties arose e.g. high inflation etc. Absolute Poverty and Global Inequality, State Violence, War and Production of Poverty The richest 5 percent earn in 48 hours what the poorest 5 percent earn in a year. Neoliberalism helped widen the gap between rich and poor. Military war and aggression have helped undermine development in much of the post-WW2 era. The government in the U.S had pro-American regimes during 1954 of the CIAinvasion of Guatemala that carried campaigns of state terrorism (act of terrorism against foreign state or its own people) that have killed many Guatemalans often with unspeakable brutality The domino theory when one country falls under communist (theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common prescribed to the community or state) influence, its neighbours would follow suit Resistance to the Neoliberal New World Order Government Resistance Resistance significantly occurs in LatinAmerican where elected governments oppose neoliberalism. They are concerned with the idea of land ownership, the associated (concomitant) spread of landlessness and skyrocketing urban poverty. They have sought to aid the landlessness and the urban poor. Popular resistance to neoliberalism worldwide often takes the form of sit-ins, demonstrations and strikes by students, non-governmental organizations, unions etc.A telling sign that people are questioning the legitimacy of neoliberal order emerged in 2011.Ablog posted by a Vancouver based magazine Adbusters called for the occupation of Wall Street (centre of American finance) by asking Obama to diminish the influence money has over the representatives in Washington. The Occupy Wall Street movement resonated not only with the poor but also with broad sections of the middle class. This movement suggested that despite the overwhelming power of global elites, it is ultimately the people who make history. Democratic Globalization ForeignAid: globalization can be reformed so that its economic and technological benefits are distributed more uniformly throughout the world, the US' contribution to foreign aid would make the greatest difference Debt Cancellation: world`s rich countries should write off debts owed to them by developing countries in recognition of historical injustices Eliminating Tariff: elimination of tariffs (taxes) by rich countries, many of these tariffs prevent developing countries from exporting goods that could earn them money for investment in agriculture, industry and infrastructure (transportations) Democratization: efforts to spread democracy throughout the developing world, research shows that democracy lowers inequality and promotes economic growth Life Expectancy and Income, 200 Countries over 200 Years Video In 1810 most countries (except for UK and Netherlands) had a life expectancy of at least 40 and were considered sick and poor in comparison to our economy today. The Industrial Revolution in Europe and everywhere else move up and become healthier andAsia,Africa and LatinAmerican remain the same.After the tragedies of the wars, USAcame out on top in 1948 and former colonies gained independence and becomes healthier and healthier. Must people today (2009) are well off, if you split parts of China e.g. Shanghai it would have the same economic welfare as Italy whereas as if China's town Guizhou were split off it would be equivalently as poor as most of Pakistan. Despite the disparity throughout the years were are a progressive race, and it is possible that all the countries can make it to the healthy and wealthy corner sometime in the future. Sociology ― Politics Power: the inability of an individual or group to impose its will on others, even if they resist. The people who occupy the compound posts of institutions are then generally seen as authorities Social Movements: when the legitimacy of authorities is undermined, nonauthories form social movements or collective attempts to change part or all of social order TraditionalAuthority: particularly in tribal and feudal societies, rulers inherit authority through family or clan ties, leadership derives from god's will Legal-rational authority: in modern societies, authority derives from respect for the law. People generally believe these laws are rational Charismatic authority: sometimes extraordinary, charismatic individuals challenge traditional or legal-rational authority. They claim to be inspired by god or some higher principle that transcends traditional authority such as the principle that all people are created equally Political Parties: organizations that seek to control state power. Normal politics is politics practised when authorities are firmly in power. Politics beyond the rules is politics as it is practised when the legitimacy of authority grows weak. The state is a set of institutions that formulate and carry out a country's laws, policies, and binding regulations. The use of force or coercive power by authorises e.g. RCMP 1998 pepper spray used to disperse Vancouver crowds demonstrating against visiting Indonesian President Suharto) Why is the state's power "ultimate"? Because its authority stands above all others, and if the state needs to use force to maintain order most people will regard this as legitimate actions. In democratic countries like Canada, the government is formed by the elected members of the political party that wins the most seats in a general election. Civil Society is the private (nonstate) sphere of social life STATE Executive (prime minister and cabinet) ―Legislature (parliament: makes laws) (*Bureaucracy (implements laws) ― *Coercive apparatus (police, military force) ―Judiciary (interprets laws) **Branches out from Legislature CIVIL SOCIETY Political Parties (*Lobbies ― *Mass Media ― *Public Opinion ― *Social Movements) **Branches out from Political Parties Pluralist Theory: one interpretation of the relationship between state and civil society. According to pluralists we live in heterogeneous (mixed) society with many competing interests and centres of power. (E.g. interests of parents with school children may differ from pensioners) they also agree that democracy is guaranteed due to no one group having the ability to control the political agenda or the outcome of political conflict Elite Theory: elite theorist C. Wright Mills disagrees with the pluralists theory saying that elites are small groups that occupy the command posts of a societies institutions. Ruling Class is a self- conscious and cohesive group of people led by corporate executives and owners of big business who act to advance their common interests. John Porter's classic The Vertical Mosaic was the first series in Canadian studies that demonstrates the weaknesses of pluralism and support some aspects of elite theory. These studies show that a disproportionate amount of people in Canada's politics and other elites come from upper and upper-middle-class families. The Marxist critique of Elite Theory denies that elites enjoy more or less equal power. They say that elites form a ruling class dominated by big business (the state is basically an arm or "instrument" of the business elite) "Structuralist Marxists" offer another perspective as to why state in capitalist societies is necessarily biased in favour of big businesses. They argue that the capitalist state acts as an arm of big business because it is constrained to do so by nature of the capitalist system itself. Power-Balance Theory Pluralists assume that all major groups in society enjoy equal power
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