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April 5-socio.docx

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April 5-Sociology-War and Destruction  War is the social process in which large groups of ppl systematically try to kill one another  Tad Homer Dixon argues that many of the societal problems and events we study, including wars, are the result of complex interactions btwn a large # of factors all of them changing over time inequality is only one important factor Dixon main point= in social system there are inevitably metal downs (wars); you can’t identify one important factor being more important than then another factor in the reason as to y wars are created.  Some theories of war are based on evolutionary and psychology  Konrad Lorens argued that animals are naturally aggressive and in humans this aggression shows up as warfare however the organized sustained warfare of humans differs from territorial fights btwn animals  Throughout human history there have been wars but not constantly sociologists ask why do some eras have wars and other eras don’t? Y some places and not other places?  Warlike rules play a part in warfare  Leaders provoke wars and lead the wars  Psychologists influenced by Sigmund Freud have argued that human beings are inherently violent a result of aggressive impulses that get magnified by repressed sexuality  Freduian theories of this kind don’t xplain why or how wars occur  Malthusian theories about war focus on the role of expanding pop and diminishing resources  Wars =positive checks according to Malthus  Young ppl are very easily mobilized for wars/military  Religions and ideologies don’t lead to violence unless youth bulge is present to actualize ideological demands  Societies with a food surplus-agricultural or industrial societies- are the best able to carry out modern warfare  Role of capitalism Marxist say capitalism is the reason of war; capitalists are always going to be going to war with other capitalist and other countries because they want to try and get the raw materials and trades from the other countries; usually its countries that are less resourceful; competition for resources  Warfare is esp common in capitalists times when war becomes an imperial struggle 4 resources and markets  Rationalists theories of war assume that wars can arise with/w.o capitalism  Like the Marxist theories they assume ppl have rational goals when they make war  The theory of war as a bettering game is based on the notion that all wars require decisions under conditions of uncertainty  The bargaining/exchange between countries is imperfect because the avaible info is complete/faulty one or both states don’t trust each other’s commitments  If we imagine that essentially u have a game and competition that the problem with this model much of wut humans do is irrational; war as a game presumes perfect knowledge and humans aren’t perfect.. so this isn’t that great of a model yet societies pretend they are behaving in a rational way  Rationalist theories assume that the actors involved r able to accurately assess their likelihood of success or failure  There are ppl who think they can rationalize the planning of a war  Hate and fear often triumph over reason in wartime  Frances stewart countries r afraid that they’re gna b taken advantage of the other country is gna prevent them from wut they need and take their resources examines 4 hypotheses that resemble the theories examined so far: group motivation hypothesis - private - failure of the social contract - green war hypothesis inequality is what creates war  she argues that one of the causes of war in the world are horizontal inequalities  War usually builds on conflicts about inequality whether they are conflicts bwtwn empires nations regions or tribal groups many wars r indirectly about all of the inequality processes  Wars have excelled and have created things called total war  Total warform of warfare that is characteristic of modern industrial society requires the maximum mobilization of social and economic resources demands greatest sacrifices by the already disadv  Von Clausewits war is merely the continuations of policy by other means- that is war is a normal aspect of international politics  Bcuz of international variations in warfare we cnt xplain wars by ref to universal features of our human bio or evolution  Military
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