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SOC102H1 (261)
Lecture 7

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Lorne Tepperman

Lecture 7-Colonialism and the Wealth of Nations -Question: what is the relationship between these debtors and creditors? E.g., what is the relation between the Greek governmentand German banks? E.g., what is the relation between Greece and Spain? E.g., what is the relation between German and French banks? -Today, we will discuss several aspects of social inequality linked to colonization - Discussing colonization means also discussing: Differentiation(as with Orientalism) Exploitation (as with class relations) Domination(as with gender relations) Racialization (as with race and ethnic relations) Victimization (as with sexual orientation) -Some important definitions Regions mainly geographical, economic,and ecological units often share commonecology and commonlifestyle and culture Nations mainly political units, and often coincide with state sometimeswithin a society, nation is separate from state, e.g. Quebec as French-speaking nation within Canada Empires Collectionsof dominated states and regions use a range of approaches to managing colonies e.g., military, economic,and ideological (religion and culture) -The historic role of colonialism (in Canada and elsewhere) Colonization opens new territoriesto exploitation In time, new nation states may arise However,they may not have a national identity and unity -Nations often require nationalism to achieve national unity nationalism -- an emphasis on the nation state above all else Implies strong feelings of connection with the nation - Nationalism stresses . the superiority of the nation-state over other forms of rule the importance of national loyalty in legitimating political power and citizenship -Ethnic nationalism: the most extremeversion - Ethnic nationalism is based on the idea of a birthplace as a "motherland" or fatherland Citizenship is held to be an inherited characteristic a matter of blood People are born into a particular nationality This place of birth shapes their interests, sentiments,and attachment to a particular nation -Nationalism: a form of parochialism? Some writers suggest that nationalism is a modern religion like what some sociologistshave called a civil religion What do we mean by religion and how can nationalism be like a religion: Both have Rituals and ceremonies Ritual objects Deep emotional attachment A sense of shared fate A sense of meaning through belief -Religious nationalisms As well, there are specifically religious nationalisms , associated mainly As well, there are specifically religious nationalisms , associated mainly mainly with Islam and Judaism (e.g., Iran, Israel) Religious nationalisms are also evident in the recent histories of Poland and Ireland Here, Roman Catholicism has formed a central elementin the national identity However,some maintain that nationalism is an essentially secular form of consciousness -Nationalism: the modern source of solidarity Ernest Gellner says that important societal changes demand new forms of solidarity and legitimation Diverse urban industrial societies need homogeneous languages and culture in order to work efficiently c.f., Durkheim Nationalism is the style of politics best suited to a modern, secular, industrial society -Nationalism fills the value vacuum The post-communistchanges in Russia and Central Europe suggest a search for new sources of social cohesion under capitalism In particular, the 'value vacuum' created by the collapse of official Marxism-Leninismhas produced a growth of nationalist and populist ideologies -When nationalism goes abroad: Defining colonialism colonialism -- The establishment by moredeveloped countries of formal political control over less-developedareas in Asia, Africa, Australasia, and Latin America From the 15th century onward, modern colonialism was practiced by Spain, Portugal, Britain, France, and the Netherlands Colonialism is not the ONLY cause of inequality between nations, but it is an important one -Colonialism = imperialism Colonialism was usually accompanied by the settling of White populations in these territoriesand the exploitation of local economicresources for metropolitanuse Colonialism is often used as a synonym for imperialism However,the term imperialism also includes non-military and non- economicmechanismsof control (e.g., religion, residential schools -The death of traditional colonialism - Traditional colonialism ended in the post-1945period with the rise of nationalist movementsdemanding independence for colonies the exhaustion of the European colonial powers after the Second World War New forms of imperial control -Imperialism: what is it? imperialism -- Literally 'empire-ism'-- a term originally used in the 1860s to denote the political and military aspirations of Napoleon III in France later applied to all rivalry between Great Powersinvolving warfare and the acquisition of less-developedterritories in Africa and Asia Now used to refer to any domination of less-developedby more- developed countries -Theories about the causes of imperialism - One theory focuses on theambitionof military classes Joseph Schumpeter sees imperialism resulting from the actions of a pre- industrial, precapitalist social stratum within the imperial countries i.e., a link between the military and the landed aristocracy Their backward ideals push them toward war-making that is not in the interests of modern capitalism Examples: fascist Germany, Italy, Japan 1935-45 -Marxist theories of imperialism-Marxist theories of imperialism By contrast, Marxist theories see imperialism as a necessary outcomeof capitalism Capitalism requires a search for new markets, for resources in precapitalist societies,or for lower wages and higher investmentreturns For Lenin, imperialism (in the sense of colonialism) was the'highest stage' of capitalism - Strategic or political theories Finally, strategic or political theories of imperialism see colonialism as a search for strategic political advantage E.g., maintaining military bases in countries that have no economic value There is nothing specifically economicor capitalist about such colonization E.g., in many parts of Africa and Asia This kind of 'imperialism' would cover the ancient Persian and Roman empires, as well as the Soviet empire 1920-1990 -Neo-colonialism:A related concept neo-colonialism -- A term often applied to the economic situation of many former colonies after political independence has been secured Even after political decolonization, western societiesmay continue to dominate the production and marketing of goods in former colonies E.g., the French in North Africa E.g., the British in other parts of Africa -The centre and periphery The dominant nation is often called the centre or metropolis The subordinate nation is often called the periphery or satellite Under neo-colonialism,the peripheral nation continues to Receive capital investmentcapital from the metropolis Ship profits and raw
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