Cities and minorities: the case of gays and lesbians (lecture 6) Inequalities are socially constructed & collectively imagined on the basis of a supposedly important natural difference. Gays and lesbians have their own parts of town. Very small (only 1-2%) in comparison to other inequalities like ethnic, classes, age groups. Therefore it is particularly vulnerable to attack and victimize. Not a phobia, but a learned subcultural attitude. An irrational fear, and a form of defense mechanism. 3 elements of homophobia (herek: heterosexism- a cultural ideology that favours cross-sexual behaviour, sexual stigma- negative labeling of people who practice any non-heterosexual behaviour, sexual prejudice-negative expectations and discrimination based on sexual orientation. 4 causes of homophobia: lack of openness to human diversity, lack of openness to sexual diversity, lack of familiarity with homosexuals, membership in a homophobic culture. Human sexual orientation lies on a continuum (fixed and binary) Attitudes and feelings towards the same sex are common.