SOC102 Sept 25
Girls are the preferred gender of the Caucasian-American parents. This is not the case of Asian
How women became/or becoming equal:
Education for women: it took 100 years for women to outnumber men in Universities.
Women were not admitted to North American University until the late 19 century.
However, there is gender-differentiation within fields.
Disappearance of men’s jobs. Typical ‘men’ jobs have been replaced by machines or moved
overseas. Primary industry (farming) employs few and secondary (manufacturing) industry
is declining. Service industry is booming and female friendly. A decrease in unionization
which means that their bargaining power is reduced.
Habits of inequality theory:
1. All societies display social inequalities.
2. These inequalities are constructed. (Collectively imagined on the basis of
supposedly natural differences)
Societies vary in equality: S-N-P-N-S
Societies vary in the degree and kinds of social inequality they display.
Habits of inequality: societies with the widest variety and intensity of inequality are most
likely to display clear and long lasting patterns.
SEX VERSUS GENDER
Sex: Biological characteristics
Gender: Social expectations that people describe as masculine or feminine.
Social construction is the process that makes sexual (ie: biological) differences seems large or
small, important or unimportant.
Narrative of blame: Allegedly women in business do not ascend up the business ladder because
it is assumed that they will choose family over work. (Women are not serious about work –
more concerned with family) Research said this is invalid.
Narratives to blame vs. the realty: Did not feel valued, felt excluded, lack of opportunity, male-
dominated work environment, work-life issues. A second belief is that ‘women cannot hack it’ in
business. A third belief is that ‘women lack self confidence’. Ie: what do you think? Women
imagine that is a invitation to discuss the issues, whereas men imagine that it is an invitation to
come up with an answer. Gender Intelligence: different understanding between gender. A female feels like she has been
ignored, and the male does not realize or understand.
“Glass ceiling”: There is only so far women can go in the business world. Although, gender
inequality has declined post industrialization and bureaucratizatio