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Starting Points Chapters: 6, 8, 10.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC102H1
Professor
Lorne Tepperman

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Starting Points: A Sociological Journey 22/10/2012 8:25:00 PM AGE GROUPS Cultural meanings are specific to times and places, which in effect makes it more difficult for different generations to understand each other. There is no upper limit for marriage, only a marriage floor. In the US and Canada drinking ages are different although it does not make much difference it all depends on the society. Therefore age related policies are constantly changing with the change in behavior and attitudes within society. Age leads to prejudices and stereotyping. We give explanations for peoples behavior based on their age. o Young teens = headstrong and irrational o Elderly = technologically dumb and sickly Ways of looking at Age Groups Functionalism One functionalist theory called disengagement theory by Elaine Cumming and William Henry states that the elderly begin to give up their positions in society because they are mentally and physically unable to keep up with the younger and more energetic generation. However this is a good thing to society because it allows it to function efficiently. Retirement for example, is necessary because it allows the individual to give up his position in the social hierchy to a younger one with possibly new innovative ideas than the older generation. This allows society to increase their competition globally. Critical Theory Critical theorist believe that ageism is not beneficial to society but rather a way for people between the ages of 20 -60 to benefit from it. They argue that the disengagement theory is cold and simplistic and depicts humans as merely robots. Critical theorist state that most elderly people want to keep their jobs and stay active however some are forced to retire unwillingly. They also state that different age groups compete against each other. Often this leads to the needs of the elderly and the youth to be ignored because the interest of the middle age/ decision makers is what counts. There is this preconception in society that the elderly are financially dependent. Symbolic Interactionism Interested in looking at how the elderly are symbolized in society and perform aging in our society. They emphasize that age is simply a state of mind that is created by labels in society. To be happy as we grow old is to refuse the idea of being disabled as we get older. The activity theory by Havighurst and Albrecht, opposed to the disengagement theory, states that as people age they take on new roles instead of readily giving them up. It is said that people who become more active are more successful. On the other hand, other symbolic interactionists focus on the media and how women slowly disappear as they age. It is more acceptable for men to be lead actors as they grow old but not for women. This is just another example of the double standard around sex and romance that disadvantage women. Feminist Theories Women age differently than men, in the sense that their loss of youth has a greater impact on them than men. Women dread getting older more than men would. As women grow older, because of their dependence on their spouse(male) they usually have a hard time living with a meager income and exhaust savings. In addition, women as they grow older gain more domestic duties and social responsibilities than men. Womens role in their family as caregivers removes them from the workforce and thus are more vulnerable to become poor after retirement. This contributes to the Feminization of poverty. Classic Studies: Centuries of Childhood In Philippe Aries book Centuries of Childhood, he explains that childhood as we know it is a cultural invention that began in late medieval Europe and was perfected in industrial times. Before the industrial times kids were subject to mature faster and take on adult like roles at an earlier stage. Poor kids earned a living by working with adults Some served the military Children in school were not divided by age. th Children during the 16 Century were viewed as pets, toys or sources of amusement for parents. Thats why a clear separation was made between children and adults which affects the growth in children schooling and child-protection laws. This in effect can be seen in how modern day children are entirely isolated from the adult world for about 15 to 25 years creating a hard transition into this unknown way of life. The growth of education has extended the period of childhood in which they are marginalized, behave irresponsibly and are economically dependent. Adolescence was socially constructed as well based on the hormonal changes and the emergence of secondary sexual characteristics. Often labeled as emotionally volatile. These two groups create an age group with particular characteristics that are often questioned by sociologist. With and increase in longevity we may create other age group as seen now with the terms young adults. Youth: A Time of Risk-taking The youth group unlike others are mostly known for their risky behavior. This could be bad in the sense that they often break rules and get into trouble more often the adults do. Delinquency as mentioned by David Matza in Delinquency and Drift is an example of risky behavior in which people typically enter without motivations to do harm. They justify their crimes Travis Hirchi says that everyone can be delinquent however it is not our moral values but the preserve law and order in society that enables us to do so. Only people with weak obedience to the social convention tend to become delinquents. Social bonds that promote conformity: Attachment Commitment Involvement Belief Adolescence have weak stake in conformity, they essentially have nothing to lose by committing crimes because their bonds to conventional society are weak. Age Group Relations Each age group are preoccupied with its own immediate concerns. Conflict between generations sometimes leads to surprising alliances Grandparents and children gang up against parents. The aging of a population changes a society.
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