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Lecture

Politics and Social Movements


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC103H1
Professor
Adam Green

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Topic 9 t Politics and Social Movements
(Week 9 lecture + NS Chp 18 + SIQ Chp 20-22)
Outline:
1. Revolutions;
2. Social movements;
3. War from sociological perspective;
z Revolutions
Political Revolution & Social Revolution
-- Distinguish between the two.
-- Revolutions must include the overthrown of the current ruling government;
-- Social revolution includes a political revolution;
-- e.g. 1789 French Revolution is an example of a social revolution
z Social movement:
-- Difference: social movements do not overthrow the current ruling government.
-- Rebellion is not a revolution;
Two kinds of social movements:
1. State-centered, citizenship movements;
2. Cultural movements;
1. State-centered, citizenship movement.
-- Most consequential in changing major political/economic institutions, changing laws;
-- e.g. civil rights movement; peace movement; labor movement; abortion rights movements;
-- e.g. The United Auto Workers; Martin Luther King & The Black civil rights movements;
-- e.g. Rosie ^the Riveter_; Suffrage Movements; ^Stonewall_; PETA; LGBT Rights;
-- Z}vÁZÇ][oo-centered movement:
object of change is for the most part at the state level; not overthrow the existing government, but
reform and change it.
-- What unites all of them are grievances on the state level.. not to overthrow, but to reform.
2. Cultural movement
-- Transformation on the level of the society,
-- Not seeking a change in policy on the level of a state, but change in ideas and views of the people and
the society;
-- e.g. Pro-Anorexia Movement; Lilith Music Fair;
-- Generally state-centered movement and cultural movement can be separate, but not always mutual
exclusive.
www.notesolution.com

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z Social Movements from sociological perspective:
-- One of the central task: try to explain why, how, when do these movements occur.
-- e.g. Why do women movements occur in some places, but not others? Why in some period of time, but
not others?
-- Sociologists: grievances by themselves do not explain why, how when social movement occur.
z 4 Major Theories
1. Social psychological theory
2. Resource Mobilization theory
3. Cultural theory
4. Political Process theory
1. Social Psychological theory:
-- Popular in 1950s
-- Emotional Instability: People involve in social movements because they are mentally unbalanced; they
have ÇZ}o}P]o}ouVZÇv[oÁ]Zthe problem through right legal
way;
-- Madness of people rather than the madness of society people live in.
-- Deprivation: those who were the most deprived thought they could not bear any more;
-- Not the objective deprivation but rather the relative deprivation (distinguish between conditions across
people);
e.g. if everyone was poor, then people would not feel that discontent and unjust because poverty is
shared by all; if poverty is only among some people and others were rich, sense of relative
deprivation motivates people to engage in movements;
2. Resource Mobilization Theory
-- Emerges around 1980s
-- Grievances are necessary, but not sufficient; More important are the available resources for people to
make the change;
-- Rationale: grievances exists everywhere in the world. People around the world are generally unhappy;
what distinguishes the group in the movement with the group that are not is the RESOURCES THEY
HAVE;
-- Grievances are general and the same, but RESOURCES make the difference.
What do resources mean?? 4 kinds of resources:
1. Access to networks of influence and power;
e.g. politicians; political party;
2. Access to social organizations with influence and power;
3. Access to financial resources;
4. Legislative support
-- support from state elites;
ÆuoWÁ}uv[u}Àuvíõòìlóì
-- Our generations are called the post-feminist: take all the benefits from the women[s movements without
realizing the back upon which these benefits are build; we should see the effort that had been done and
the effort needs to make
www.notesolution.com
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