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SOC103H1 (132)
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 Learn about history/development of soc  Macrosociology, microsociology, sociological imagination  Understand 3 key theoretical paradigms Sociology = systematic study of societies o Types of people o Types of relationships o Types of groups o "haves and have nots"  Social behaviours o Cultures , experiences  Social institutions  Social institutions are organized structures involving various social relationships to solve social problems  A relatively stable, shared pattern of behaviour based on relatively stable values  Meets people's most important needs (eg for order, belief, and reproduction)  It includes the structural components through which most needs are met (laws, religions, and families)  Therefore, can speak of "the family" as a social institution o All institutions have a common denominator (eg they all occupy space/territory eg school, church) o Must have leaders to function o Most live forever (eg family lives forever, will always have families in the world) o All have institutional behaviour (eg u of t vs york, work/procedures) and bodies o Must have organization of structure Social institution  Social institutions are stable patterns of behaviour created and maintained through social interaction  Herbert Spencer argued that institutions are like plants  They require weeding and watering  Must grow gradually  Marx says all institutions are machines of oppression except the proletariat institutions  Social institutions perform both manifest and latent functions o Manifest  Intended and easily recognized (eg universities transmit knowledge) o Latent  Unintended and often hidden (eg universities are a marriage market) Sociology's Emergence About 200 years ago  New social problems arose form o Industrialization o Urbanization o Political revolutions  Also important: o The Enlightenment  The rise of science  New questioning of religious belief and tradition  Science and sociology pursuit truth and knowledge  Science and sociology believe in the same things  Sociology brought many questions to religion The Two Revolution  The two social revolutions particularly influenced the growth of sociology o The industrial revolution o The french revolution o These brought money, new inventions, factories, etc causing a divide the class Founders of Soc  Karl Marx  Emile Durkheim  Max Weber o How can society live together o They used different methods and etc to get to the conclusion, thus the different analysis Comte coined the term sociology 3 Stage of Comte's Social Evolution  Theological o Outcome: understanding based on ascription of events to wills of supernatural agencies  Metaphysical o Outcome: understanding based on assumptions, essence and teleological predispositions o About reason, rationality o Undermining supernatural force  Positivist o Outcome: understanding based on observation of relationships between events Noting and explaining differences  Sociologists have always tried to explain differences between societies o Why we do things this way and they do things that way o Analyzing similarities and differences o Eg Herodotus and Voltaire Practical Applications  Sociology is oriented to problem solving  Finding better ways of living together  Finding and correct the roots of violence, racism, sexism Explaining, not blaming  Social theorizing moves us away from ideas of blame, guilt, sins and wrong-doing  Everyone has agency and free will  Everyone is also constrained and manipulated  Everyone is to blame for something, to a greater or lesser degree Common sense is not enough  Leads to incomplete and inaccurate explanations o Ignores root social causes of problems o Untested Free Will (Agency)  What people get in life is, largely, the result of circumstances beyond their control  However, people do make choices  They make structured or constrained choices  We want to understand that structure of constraint Useful tools (concepts)  Macrosociology: the study of large events and organizations o Microsociology: the study of small ev
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