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University of Toronto St. George

family and socialization 2/12/2013 4:09:00 PM Slide 3  Classic study by American sociologist William Goode  Examines the relationship between changing family patterns and industrialization  Shows similar patterns of change around the world over the past 100 years Slide 4 Self-sustaining unit of production and consumption: Supports itself by itself, live together, eat together Parents-children: as long as parents have no controls of access to economics over the children, children can choose to live the life they want Husband-wife: more equal Divorce, contraception, etc. were available but at present, it is cultural acceptable, part of normal life Slide 5 It is easier to move with less people in the family. Slide 6 Families, no matter what form or definition, share expected social processes: 1. dependency and intimacy (more likely to expose your emotion and vulnerability) family members are attached and dependent on one another 2. regulated sexuality a. spouses expect to have a long term, exclusive sexual relationship b. sex is forbidden between parents and children, or between siblings (or outside of family) Slide 9  cohesive – members have strong identification with the family as a whole, and with one another  adaptable – members are most able to plan and make changes some traits of these families 1. have open patterns of communication 2. use fair procedures to resolve conflicts (fair: everyone is listened to and respected) 3. use fair, even democratic processes for setting goals (democratic: equal) 4. family culture and ritual ties everyone together Slide 12  obey social rules (foundation to social life)  complete school  earn a living  sustain close relations  raise children themselves slide 13 Mead extra  the “Me” is what is learned in interaction with others and the environment  other people’s attitudes, internalized in the self, constitute the Me slide 14 extra  this produces gender differences throughout life slide 15 as part of the school’s hidden curriculum, children are supposed to learn punctuality, conformity, and obedience slide 18 direct socialization: the intended result of : modeling and imitation rewards for good behavior punishments for bad behavior indirect or reactive socialization: the unintended result of: abuse or neglect excessive punishment inconsistent parenting parentification slide 21 *cut slide 24 research shows that the most effective parenting strategy is authoritative, based on high demands and high responsiveness may work differently in non-western societies slide 25 extra no other people perform as wide a variety of roles for the child slide 27 e.g., the main influence families exercise over their children’s drug use is through family control over peer associations slide 33 *skipped slide 35 externalize problems: get into problems slide 36 higher levels of parental warmth produce fewer externalizing problems high levels of parental punishment produce more externalizing problems slide 39 *cut slide 42  Theodor Adorno et al.  Study’s purpose was to discover the roots of prejudice and anti-Semitism  Measured “authoritarianism” with a new F-scale (F for fascism)  Authors conclude that racism and anti-Semitism are associated with fascist tendencies Slide 45 Adult authoritarianism is a result of parenting that:  Demanded unquestioned obedience  Provided limited affection and respect  Forced the child to - Displace his/her anger on to “safe” targets – e.g., vulnerable people, or - Sublimate his/her anger in fantasy objects or pointless, repetitive behavior (ritual, convention ) Slide 48 We interviewed 200 adults, 150 of them with a gambling problem - 45 minute self-administered survey - 1 hour open-ended interview even in the absence of direct socialization… gambling addiction results from the combination of - childhood trauma - adult stress - poor adult coping Schools and Education 2/12/2013 4:09:00 PM Guest lecture Parsons on Education they are no longer individuals but rather a part of the group they have to judge and be judged based on the social performance socialization positive sanctions not only come as short-term rewards but also as long- term rewards. Negative sanctions usually come immediately. Socialization and hypothetical situation The core value for Parsons is to teach people how to respect authority Selection School means to channel students into different capacity groups. Back to our lecture (yay! ^o^) Slide 2 Schools mean to sort out people as they demonstrate their merits and achieve the rewards they deserve Slide 3  the process works by awarding credentials to deserving candidates  the advantaged few gain valuable credentials: tickets of entry into top occupational groups  these powerful groups (e.g., MDs) limit entry and demand high payment for their services as a profession nowadays, doctor is considered smart and educated and doctors can demand more from the society. Slide 4 compared to getting money with a gun, a MD degree makes it look social definable and legitimate to get money. slide 6  access to the best (i.e., most valuable) credentials is unequal  in particular, students from better-off families are more likely to attend university - this has persisted for the last 35 years  therefore, class position continues to pass down form one generation to the next (a class-based process not a education-based process) slide 7 in university students are treated fairly, but the entry to the universities is not fair to poorer people. Also, some students are discouraged to go to universities or to choose certain programs and career paths. slide 9  in 2011, post-secondary education attained by women aged 25-44 was twice as high as that of women aged 65+  this contributed to the gender equalization of Canadian society Slide 12 Since (at least) 1992, the unemployment rates of people with a college degree have remained lower than for anyone else Slide 13 Gender segregation: female-dominated jobs in general are paid less. Slide 15  top North American universities aim to train researchers and produce research findings  undergraduate teaching is a (minor) aspect of this process - student satisfaction and student employment are minor concerns  this is reflected in the way University of Toronto measures its success, in its own eyes Slide 30  James S. Coleman - Influential and rigorous sociologist in the field of education and public policy - Taught at University of Chicago and John Hopkins University  The Adolescent Society (1961)  Examined the socialization that takes place in school and its consequences Slide 36  Like prisoners or factory workers, students develop a collective response to demands by people in authority  They hold down their effort to a level everyone can achieve  Like workers, students enforce work-restricting norms using ridicule, kidding and exclusion from the group Slide 39 Seeley’s goal:  To understand the culture of the child, his values, his goals in life and his problems  Studied the strains and conflicts at home and school  To parents in CH, the child is a problem to be solved, like other problems in the managerial world Slide 42  The school is the most important institution in the community - The authority on child-raising and the main place where children can demonstrate perfection  Parents turn their children over to the school and associated institution like camp, hoping to get them back more mature  Concern with schooling also makes the parent-teacher association CH’s most significant voluntary association Slide 45  North American middle-class parents and immigrant parents continue to drum into their children strong needs fro achievement  Develop anxiety about obtaining go
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