Social movements: state-centered and citizenship movements, civil rights movements, peace movements, enviro movements, abortion rights movements, labour movements, cultural movements, literary movements, artistic movements, musical movements. Those who are most deprived they will reach a certain threshold where they simply cannot take it anymore. Increasing access to political participation: state opponents are less fortified against challengers: unstable alignments: unstable alignments between parties and constituencies. Influential allies c: divided elites : conflicts, war. War is a violent, armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight to protect or to increase their control of territory. Between countries (interstate war: special type: colonial war, which involves a colony engaging in armed conflict which an imperial power to gain independence, within countries. Type of government by income category, 1990s. The modern state increasingly monopolized the means of co-ercion. As a result, regional, ethnic, and religious wars declined, and interstate warfare became the norm; Which conflict became more deadly, civilian life was pacified.