SOC103H1 Lecture Notes - Resource Mobilization, Abortion-Rights Movements, Mattachine Society

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30 Nov 2011
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Alexandra Zylka November 30th , 2010
SOC103H1F – Politics and Sociology
Social Movements
1. State-Centered and Citizenship Movements
a. Civil rights movements, peace movements, enviro movements,
abortion rights movements, labour movements
2. Cultural Movements
a. Literary movements, artistic movements, musical movements
Central task for a sociologist in this section is to determine why, how and when
such movements etc. occur.
4 Theories of Social Movements
1. Social Psychological Theories – the emphasis on the madness of people, not the
society. Those who are most deprived they will reach a certain threshold where
they simply cannot take it anymore. Relative deprivation left many social
movement cases unexplained.
a. Emotional instability
b. Deprivation
2. Resource mobilization theory
a. Dominant pyridine for sociological movements for about ten years
1. What is a Resource?
a. Access to networks of influence and power
b. Access to social organizations with influence and power
c. Access to financial resources
d. Legislative report
b. Womens Movement of the 60s and 70s.
i. Movement in which of our generation that our women are
benefitting from.
ii. We take all the benefits from the women that came before us (Post-
c. Grievances with resources that women acquired = provision for necessary
conditions for the rise of the modern women’s movement.
d. Modern Women’s Movement
i. White middle-class women gained direct access to money and
higher education
ii. Some women from the New-Left movement were politicized and
tapped into activist networks
iii. Equal Pay Act of 1963, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (produced by
the EEOC)
iv. Movement led middle class.
3. Cultural theories
a. Ideological and cultural factors act independent of resources to shape the
onset and development of social movements.
b. Movements can be generated by a “demonstration effect” whereby one
group becomes politicized as a consequence of witnessing another
group’s struggle.
1. Homosexuality = sickness
2. The Tormented Lesbian
3. 1950s – Lesbian Cures
a. Dr. Arthur Guy Mathews cures lesbians by hiring a fashion expert to
teach makeup and hair styling (1957)
b. Mattachine Society – well dressed and well-manicured. Wanted
i. First LG tolerance group
4. Snow and Benford: Framing
a. Movement Frame – a symbolic construction of a given movement,
including its identity, its purppse and its conditions under which its
participants live.
b. Frame alignment – the process of producing shared, collective
orientations, goals and ideologies for a given movement
c. Frame transformation – and old movement frame is jettisoned in
place of new interpretations and ideas.
4. Political Process Theory- The “Political Opportunity Structure”
a. Increasing Access to Political Participation: state opponents are less
fortified against challengers
b. Unstable Alignments: unstable alignments between parties and
c. Influential Allies
d. Divided Elites : conflicts
-War is a violent, armed conflict between politically distinct groups who fight
to protect or to increase their control of territory
-Where wars take place :
Between countries (interstate war)
Special type: colonial war, which involves a colony engaging
in armed conflict which an imperial power to gain
Within countries
Global Trends in Violent Conflict, 1946-2002
The Risk of War, 2002
Type of Government by Income Category, 1990s
Forms of Modern Warfare, 1700-1945
-The modern state increasingly monopolized the means of co-ercion.
-As a result, regional, ethnic, and religious wars declined, and interstate
warfare became the norm;
-Which conflict became more deadly, civilian life was pacified.
Changing Form of Warfare since World War II
-There have been fewer interstates wars and more civl wars, guerrilla wars,
massacres, terrorist attacks and instances of attempted ethnic cleansing and
genocide perpetrated by militias, mercenaries, paramilitaries, suicide
bombers and so on.
-Large-scale violence has increasingly been visited on civilian rather than
military Populations
Casualties Due to International Terrorist Attacks, 1991-2003
Why warfare changed after World War II
-Decolonization and separatist movements roughly doubled the numer of
weak, independent states in the world.
-The USA, the USSR, China and Cuba often subsidized and sent arms to
domestic opponents of regimes that were aligned against them.
-The expansion of international trade in contraband provided separatist
rebels with new means of support.
-Typical Creature of Contemporary Warfare = Al Qaeda