SOC200H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Structural Functionalism, Sociological Theory, Differential Association

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Published on 25 Sep 2016
School
UTSG
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC200H1
Soc200: Lecture 2—September 20 th
2016
Lecture outline
- Kuhn on Paradigms
- Paradigms in sociology
- Theories and Findings
- Sociological questions
- Sociological Explanations
Assignment basics
- Research proposal, rubric posted this afternoon
Kuhn on Paradigms—Research process
1. Come up with a topic
2. Come up with a narrow question—when you write this down you will be compelled to put
down a question mark
3. Focus on the question-how can I answer this question? How design a study—survey,
interview etc
4. Collect the data through your plan
5. Analyze your data for accuracy
6. Interpret your data
7. And let others know of this new knowledge you’re aware about
** in the centre of all this is THEORY connecting to all points
- This numerical flow is the paradigm in which it is constructed
- Kuhn—the structure of Scientific Revolutions
Revolutions basically change the thought process of scientists
Science = assumptions—nothing can be done without making a form of
assumption
Based on the assumptions we have an accumulation of knowledge where
we learn throughout the process
Then every now and then we have a finding which contradicts our
assumptions
Anomalies assumed to be of error—corrections are added to our
paradigm
Corrections cumulate—errors and patchwork come in and causes a crisis
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Then we have someone come in to tame the crisis—and the new thought
comes in to replace the old paradigm, people using the old paradigm are
no longer considered to be a part of the paradigm
- Thought process before—earth revolves around the sun—epicycles were noted
- Paradigm shift is chaotic—Galileo earth orbits the sun knowledge= him thrown in
jail
Most of the time the contradictions are an error
Sociological Paradigms:
- Look at it as a lens—lenses can choose what lens is in focus and what isn’t—
putting a person in focus and blurring the rest
- Paradigms effect our view through the lens
- Lenses in our eyes flip the image—but our brains flip them back
- Lenses are going to affect how we see things and how broad of a view we take
- All the lenses are true but the different lenses = different views
Structural functionalism
- In the system everyone has a part in the overall function
- The system has portions working together and supporting the continuing
functioning of the system
- Explains stability quite well
- Ignores portions
- Can have change—slide
Conflict Theory
- Peoples interests vary + conflict—society is built by struggles
- Focuses on how society is shaped by this constant struggle of varying interests
- Explains conflict and change really well
- Not good for stability as its always changing
Paradigms in Natrual Science Vs. Sociology --slide
Natural science Sociology
Empirically testable underlying assumptions Not empirically testable as they aren’t about
appropriate areas of focus
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