SOC200H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Operationalization, Nanny, Dependent And Independent Variables

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Published on 10 Oct 2016
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Soc200: Lecture 4: October 4th 2016
Outline:
- Causationone thing causes another
- Measurement—how we measure the concepts to see if they’re correlated
Last week we learned about how to prove Causation
1. So correlation
2. slide
3. slide
Spuriousness-hold it constanta variable must vary: it must be constant
FLAT = no relationship
- Storks = births
- No storks = births
Holding a variable constant = figure out
PAPERS:
You’ll probably be taking the first step of showing correlation—causal relationship—you don’t
have data: less strong in a graph = less steep = partial spuriousness
Mechanisms:
1. How does X cause Y?
- Important for papersa story or account of how one thing causes another
- Eg) one mechanismpeople with more education = seen as more skilled by employers
= more money = more employment options
- Negotiate better salaries
- MECHANISMsare not necessarily mutually effective
Ex) Working fewer hours for pay causes better grades
Ex2) living in a city causes better health
o Ie) walking more than driving due to the city life
Ex 3) having kids causes less sleep
o Kids cry
o Kids need prep workwake up early
- Your mechanism is a theoryif you want to take it forward you need to test the theory
o CREDENTIALISM: --the diplomapeople with more credentials do better
because of the credentials you havethey are looking for signs
o People with credentials are able to get more jobstheory of how income leads to
education
1. How does X Cause Y?
Education (Independent variable) + Credentials (Intervening variable) + income (SLIDE)
Mechanismintervening variable must be measured
How do we show mechanisms as correct?
- 1. Education causes income. (already supported)
- 2. Education causes credentials
- 3. Credentials cause income
- 4. Where education doesn’t lead to credentials—it doesn’t lead to higher income
o test: CONTROL for (hold constant) intervening variable
- the relationship goes away when a line is flat ish
the more credentials they have = the more income they have
- judgement + theory = how to tell them apart
2. How do relationship vary under different circumstances?
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Document Summary

Measurement how we measure the concepts to see if they"re correlated. Last week we learned about how to prove causation: so correlation, slide, slide. Spuriousness-hold it constant a variable must vary: it must be constant. You"ll probably be taking the first step of showing correlation causal relationship you don"t have data: less strong in a graph = less steep = partial spuriousness. Eg) one mechanism people with more education = seen as more skilled by employers. Important for papers a story or account of how one thing causes another. Ex) working fewer hours for pay causes better grades. Ex2) living in a city causes better health. Ie) walking more than driving due to the city life. Ex 3) having kids causes less sleep: kids cry, kids need prep work wake up early. Education (independent variable) + credentials (intervening variable) + income (slide)

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