Class Notes (1,200,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
SOC (3,000)


Course Code
Alexandra Marin

of 4
Unobtrusive measures
Unobtrusive not effecting not intervening study social behavior without affecting it, not
going out to the fields
Main types
Analysis of existing stats
Content analysis, and the related concept of discouse analysis
Historical and comparative research
Historian describe events, soc look for patterns
Why do it?
Ethics concern are miniminal not interacting directly with participant, not causing any
harm not interacting directly with people,
Good we cant go back in time but study written archieves and articles, if u want u can
change not going to runaway, minimal cost unless u have to go somewhere ex paris,
Problems with validity and realibilty, but all research pluses and minuses
Ex of it, garbage anlaysis going through trash, read diaries of teenagers what they
complian or worry about out boys or parents
Analyzing existing statistics, Durkheim developed anonimc suicide, consulted officel doc
Stats can, euro stat, exploded access to internet find stuff online, work with whats
available, confidential things such as hospital not release to any other parties,
Cant always work with individual with unit of analysis but aggregates of groups
Not commit ecological fallacy, behaoiur group level reflect indi level
Sources, gov bodies, other organizations world banck, gallup pulls, sometimes publically
sometimes a lot, publishing book sale 5000 papers on report of how many mangaizines sold,
stasts can some public some, big archival natnl library,
Ex existing statistics, chronic illness, contested illnesses, exist in body or all in head
Canadian comm. Health survey all regions etc,
A lot can become quantiitive,
Content analysis, artificats used are numerous, blogs twitter etc, asking main questions
who says what, to whom, why, how, and with what effect,
Sampling, narrow down the field of what u r doing, romantic novels have to narrow it down
to author, year, etc,
Menard and kleinpatz looked at sex tips in magazines, to narrow it down what units u are
working with, just endings or random paragraphs, unobtrusive to much must narrow it
Sampling yechniques, random, systematic, stratified, cluster,
Short hand what u wanna focus on, transforming raw data into codes or classification to
somesort conceptual framework, manifiest content also latne content not just at face value
more interpretism beneath the surface as well as on it,
Plus and minus
Cheap unless have to travel also errors corrected as u go through
Reading physical affection and mushing language and then see violence not coded for go
back and do it
Limited to recorded communications existing already,
Potential validity, measures accurately reflecting concepts
Discourse analysis vs content, ca doing something reading books etc, da talk more in
humanities English, also talking about communications, recoreded, da symbols analysis in
language is structured sometimes data sometimes just in general,
Historical comparative research, comparative and longitudinal,
Ex Max weber religion and capitalism in Europe not in ancient societies, prior research on
Major guiding principal for wber vershtehen mening understanding, out shows in one being
studied, what its like to be wife of politician 200 years ago in Europe and compare several
countriea and found bunch of evidence not look at it in 2020 not a politican wife, not own
social indentity, empathy pretend coming at it from how they experienced it, less biased,
take extra step
Ideal type, not ideal in moral sense, conceptual model for understanding essential
characteristics of soc phenomenon way back when dentist and a gentleman, tracey adam
dentist in historical period, work together, use things
Applications of research suggestion
Dr phil books, hes just that not in to u, 50 years worth ideas on gender equality, what
women want and need in reln, what considerations reltvie amount of time and budget,
Sample of 43 books, looked at what other researchers have foud going on historically 1960s
and now. Looked at census such as divorces, cohabiting vs marrying, book random stratied
To code
Invenmtory of themes refine it, bc havent read all of them see patterns go back etc, also
what is being said and what wasnt and how it was said
Process of coding,
Huge master code list, baggage, body ordor etc, boil down to central themes, develop bigger
umbrella codes, or braoder frames, such as dysfunction, physical appearance, social change
and so on and so fourth
Manifest and latent content, interptreitve in content analysis
Code for this, code for feminism when code for feminism have sub code for fem in
disapproving why, what do u sense, read more come back nd recode, such a neoliberal way
of looking at world, how do u know interpration is consistent w way is research conducted in
teams interceding reliability all get on same page, some gray area must make executive
descision this or that, use theories or paradigm,
Discovery of patterns, not just content but historical as well, books coded and patterns vs
historical context, findings 50-60 equal partnership explore sex pre AIDS focus of get rid of
rigid gender roles
Middle emotional caution sexual conservatism 80s
Mid 90s egalitarian reln
Mars and venus series embrace female and male roles,
Make links pvt personal level and at macro level whats happening polticaly