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Soc 202 Chapter 7 .docx

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Chapter 7 February-25-13 11:07 PM INTRODUCTION  Sampling distributions allow us to refine the estimates provided by statistics calculated on a sample POINT ESTIMATES  Sampling error: difference between the calculated value of a sample statistic and the true value of a population parameter  Point estimate: a statistic provided without indicating a range of error  There is a variability in statistical outcomes from sample to sample PREDICTING SAMPLE ERRORS  Repeated sampling: drawing a sample and computing its statistics and then drawing a second sample, a third, a fourth, and so on  English letters used for sample statistics. Greek used for population parameters.  Sampling error is patterned and systematic and therefore is predictable  The resulting sample means were similar in value and tended to cluster around a particular value o Probability theorists suspected that this value was the true value of the population parameter o Sampling variability was mathematically predictable from probability curves SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS  Sampling distribution: from repeated sampling, a mathematical description of all possible sampling outcomes and the probability of each one o Eg. The mean age of the population of all doctors is 48 years. Draw 10 000 samples out of 144 doctors. From each sample, calculate the mean age. Plot each value on a histogram and they will take teh shape of a normal distribution  When the sample size, n, is greater than 121 cases, a sampling distribution of means is normal in shape.  The mean of a sampling distribution of means will always equal the population mean o Eg. Sum the values of all 10 000 sample means and divide by 10 000 = 48  A sampling distribution tells us how often a sample statistic is likely to miss the true population parameter value and by how much THE STANDARD ERROR  Standard error: the standard deviation of a sampling distribution o It is a measure of predictable sampling errors  Measures the spread of sampling error that occurs when a population is sample
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