Quantitative Methods: Introduction
Lecture #1- January 8th, 2012
> for test if its on lecture and in book that’s what should be studied
> get a scientific calculator
➪ Science & the Research Process:
- Talking about data analysis in this part.
- Science: a systematic method of explaining empirical (observable/measurable) phenomenon (is
there a relationship between things that are measurable/connected e.g. not going to lecture=lower
marks, two things to observe such as : attendance, and observable outcome e.g. grades), and there is
a method we can apply to assess these connections.
The research process:
(1) specify the research question (curiosity- why are things related, e.g. in national samples women
more depressed, tells a lot about gender, social status, and something about mental health outcome,
why is there an association?), what is causing it? it can be basic e.g. is education associated with
income? is there a systematic correlation? is it linear? non linear? gender specific?.
(2) review scientific literature (if ipad use has an impact on sleep? leading to second question, you
review researches on it, that has been published to see if its credible or valid. These articles provide
theories to see why certain things are connected)
(3) propose a theory and state hypotheses: a rationale, a proposition, it can be micro or macro
theory, and then hypothesis (i predict/expect that this will happen connection between x & y
variable) stating the direction is hypotheses, theoretical ideas drive the analysis and reflect back on
the theory after the testing of it.
(4) select a research design - different types of sampling, tend to involve experiments or quasi
experiments (large scale surveys- national representat