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SOC202.JAN24 2012.SP.docx

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Scott Schieman

SOC202.JAN 24 2012.SP Lecture 3 Central tendency - Distribution of scores o Where do people fall? o When we say “women tend to learn less than men when they are in same position” that doesn’t mean not ALL women do. o It is talking about what is normal, usual o What is the median? What is the value? - Mean is the average - The median is the midpoint – if there is distribution of income, where the midpoint is. - Mode is the most frequent score - Interval ratio – continuous, categorical Measuring spread - Standard deviation is the spread around the mean. It tells you the mean and the spread – almost like average of spread. - Standardized scores – will help us understand a bit more about statistics and how to come to conclusion Standard deviation - How far does each individual score deviate from the mean? - Start asking your neighbors how old they are, they will be 12, 65, 88, 45, etc. unlike this class where everyone is similar age – deviation produces a lot of difference - Everyone calculate the mean – you are getting all the deviation around the mean - The whole point: How far is each case far from the mean? Example: work-to-family conflict - Validity of measurement – how do you ask questions to get at the very abstract concept? - Frequency o What does “often” or “rarely” mean? o People say one thing, then reflect on it, then change their answers. We are rather interested in the levels. - If it is certain amount of things, like amount of lights, is easy to measure, but you cant measure the level of confidence or anything abstract. - Ok the average is 85, and a person has 7 in the score of confidence – then why is it low? You need to find that out Data – real scores on WFC items and index - Look at the case #14. For the first answer he said 3. Second he said 3. Third said 4, then 2, then the index was 12. That is basically what data looks like. - If there is no generality, there is a problem. Work-to-family conflict - What does 5 or 6 really mean? These are the values of the index. The kind of questions we will ask: what are the distribution really looking like? o How many people said never never never never (all 4 items)? 11.75% o The whole idea is not necessarily about anything in particular. Look
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