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# SOC202.JAN24 2012.SP.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Sociology

SOC202H1

Scott Schieman

Winter

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SOC202.JAN 24 2012.SP
Lecture 3
Central tendency
- Distribution of scores
o Where do people fall?
o When we say “women tend to learn less than men when they are in
same position” that doesn’t mean not ALL women do.
o It is talking about what is normal, usual
o What is the median? What is the value?
- Mean is the average
- The median is the midpoint – if there is distribution of income, where the
midpoint is.
- Mode is the most frequent score
- Interval ratio – continuous, categorical
Measuring spread
- Standard deviation is the spread around the mean. It tells you the mean and
the spread – almost like average of spread.
- Standardized scores – will help us understand a bit more about statistics and
how to come to conclusion
Standard deviation
- How far does each individual score deviate from the mean?
- Start asking your neighbors how old they are, they will be 12, 65, 88, 45, etc.
unlike this class where everyone is similar age – deviation produces a lot of
difference
- Everyone calculate the mean – you are getting all the deviation around the
mean
- The whole point: How far is each case far from the mean?
Example: work-to-family conflict
- Validity of measurement – how do you ask questions to get at the very
abstract concept?
- Frequency
o What does “often” or “rarely” mean?
o People say one thing, then reflect on it, then change their answers. We
are rather interested in the levels.
- If it is certain amount of things, like amount of lights, is easy to measure, but
you cant measure the level of confidence or anything abstract.
- Ok the average is 85, and a person has 7 in the score of confidence – then
why is it low? You need to find that out
Data – real scores on WFC items and index
- Look at the case #14. For the first answer he said 3. Second he said 3. Third
said 4, then 2, then the index was 12. That is basically what data looks like. - If there is no generality, there is a problem.
Work-to-family conflict
- What does 5 or 6 really mean? These are the values of the index. The kind of
questions we will ask: what are the distribution really looking like?
o How many people said never never never never (all 4 items)? 11.75%
o The whole idea is not necessarily about anything in particular. Look

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