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SOC203H1 Lecture Notes - Antonio Gramsci, False Consciousness, Political Philosophy

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Authority and public opinion
1) Enlightenment:
a. A time a historical era (1700s) a period in western Europe, Paris, London,
Endenburo. Sceptical ideas towards religion, protestant reformation( anti-
institutional reform, removing the authority of the roman catholic
church…..emphasis on individual understanding) . A non religious way of
thinking. …… scientific revolution (emphasis on evidence)
b. A process an intellectual movement with emphasis on reason. To free one’s self
from superstition, bias, refers to an intellectual movement still alive today ta
believe that reason can liberate us. Environmental degredation is held up as an
argument against the enlightenment. The phenomenon of bureaucradisation is
another, cause this leads to the alienation of individuals which stuns humans.
2) “what is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant (1784) An essay competition in a
newspaper, his essay is a key document in the world of political philosophy. “ to become
an adult is to become enlightened.Self-imposed immaturity” “using understanding
without the guidance of another” “it is hard to think on his own” “ each person’s calling
to think for themselves” “autocratic despotism” “
3) Public Opinion:
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