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SOC203H1 (77)
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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC203H1
Professor
jackveulgers
Semester
Winter

Description
Authority and public opinion 1. Enlightenment: - Time: 1700 in the period in western Europe with Paris, London etc.; skepticism with ideas; encourage the believers to communicate directly with God through the media with the church; emphasis on ind. faith; refers to literature movement contrast to reasons---value to be protected - A process: replace with the greater emphasis on ind. understand and reflecting--- bible; scientific revolution starting in the 1600; scientific method rather than deductive emphasis; movement replaced emphasis on reasons, liberating---dual sense; to free oneself from superstitions and bias; instit. designed in corporation, function better many are skeptical abt the enlightenment process; degradation helps argument of enlightenment approaches; seems as a symbol of rationality carry too far; certainly contested ideas today 2. “What is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant (1784): argued that one is in a way not reach adulthood; how do you grow up by thinking abt yourself; very difficult to grow up 3. Public opinion - Definition: emerges when the public able to debate freely; private---not open to others; reasonable debate with consensus; public in the sense that takes place with a grp of ppl with collect of interest - Institutional locations Divide a country into two parts: state (public realm) and civil society (private realm; econ, leg organ, family, instit. ass. with civil soc); newspaper are in civil society; town hall meeting in civil soc; instit which provides ind. with opportunity---instit. of civil soc one instit. in btw state and civil soc--- parliament (ind comes tgt vigorously discuss matter of interest e.g. defending and criticizing, persuasion Kant argued attacking authority; when considered rule by king; no checks on the monarch; ruled by strong ind who can impose their wills, the alternative of monarchy is to rule by reason; civil soc governed through reason; civil soc is able to rule itself by the rule of reason For Kant, a way of getting political authority, connecting civil soc with the state; pol. authority solves two problems: mediating--- connect state with civil soc 4. The authority of public opinion 5. Hegel’s antagonism: - Marx said his own approach philosophy, wanted to replace Hegel; surrounding control of means of production - Kant: free and open discussion and eventually the best arg. - Hegel: soc is divided with diff classes and diff interests, doesn’t believe civil soc, most ppl kind of stupid, non-enlightenment, civil soc is full of prejudice and bias etc., Hegel is a enlightenment monarchy; surrounds with well-educated advisors, cared with the advance of sci; like to see reasons exercise; 1. state has an obj overview of the soc; 2. fine rational capacity to rule 6. Tocqueville’s scepticism: not belief the America is a hot bed of diverse opinion; he said democracy in America always compared with France before the revolution; ppl had the right for freedom of opinion; what do they do with the freedom? America: freedom of opinion not really exercise, but ppl hv rights;
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