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SOC203H1 (77)

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University of Toronto St. George

Authority and public opinion 1) Enlightenment: a. A time a historical era (1700s) a period in western Europe, Paris, London, Endenburo. Sceptical ideas towards religion, protestant reformation( anti- institutional reform, removing the authority of the roman catholic church…..emphasis on individual understanding) . A non religious way of thinking. …… scientific revolution (emphasis on evidence) b. A process an intellectual movement with emphasis on reason. To free one’s self from superstition, bias, refers to an intellectual movement still alive today ta believe that reason can liberate us. Environmental degredation is held up as an argument against the enlightenment. The phenomenon of bureaucradisation is another, cause this leads to the alienation of individuals which stuns humans. 2) “what is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant (1784) An essay competition in a newspaper, his essay is a key document in the world of political philosophy. “ to become an adult is to become enlightened. “Self-imposed immaturity” “using understanding without the guidance of another” “it is hard to think on his own” “ each person’s calling to think for themselves” “autocratic despotism” “ 3) Public Opinion: a. Definition it emerges when the public is able to debate freely. It takes place in interaction between a group of people, on meaningful subjects b. Institutional locations newspapers(maybe), St-Lawrence market have a citizens night once a month, where citizens can come up and debate about something happening in T.O , PARLIAMENT: is placed between both realms( State/Civil Society) Because anyone can come to parliament and rigo
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