Class Notes (836,517)
Canada (509,851)
Sociology (3,253)
SOC203H1 (77)
Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Karl Marx.docx

2 Pages
Unlock Document


Authority and Public Opinion 1. Enlightenment  A time - 1700s, Paris, London, etc. - skepticism about received ideas (religious, nobility) - Protestant reformation was anti-institutional (Catholic church), advocated individualism - replaced authority of Roman Catholic church with individual reflection (the bible) - scientific revolution (1600s), emphasis on reason - both Protestant reformation and scientific revolution led up to the Enlightenment - intellectual movement on reason, reason has an emancipatory potential to free oneself from superstition and bias  A process - now, some people are skeptical about the Enlightenment process - science and technology has the capacity to lead to environmental degradation – reason can be used excessively so that nature suffers - bureaucratization (large corporations) leads to alienation 2. “What is Enlightenment?” by Immanuel Kant (1784) - someone who is not enlightened is a child who cannot reach adulthood (immature), and who is subject to authority such as the priest, the ruler, the military, parents, etc. - people need to “grow up” and be enlightened  Kant is attacking authority - people/the public need to group together and interact with each other (such as through debates and newspapers) and express themselves freely, and then people will use reason to think for themselves (“use your own understanding”) - “each person’s calling to think for themselves” 3. Public opinion:  Definition - for Kant, public opinion is where people (the public) will debate matters of interest important to society in public conversations, where people can listen and rebut other people’s ideas/views  Institutional locations - town hall meetings - parliament (spans between the state/public realm and civil society/private realm) where people are suppose to gather and debate issues, and come to a strong consensus through reason - a monarch can rule according to his will, and may not rule by reason, because there is no checks on the monarch (this process excludes civil society) - Kant thinks there is a need to substitute will of the ruler with reason - Kant’s alternate solution is for civil society to rule by reason, by giving the public opportunity to debate - the parliament debates and then comes up with laws (state/public realm), and then the laws come to regulate the people (civil society; this is a loop) - civil society as a realm for ideological struggle 4. The authority of public opinion - parliament allows public opinion to gain political authority, by allowing the public to help in making laws that
More Less

Related notes for SOC203H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.