SOC203H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Marxism, Social Inequality, Secondary Source
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Jan 25 reading notes !
Manifesto of the communist party: Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels
a spectre is haunting Europe, the spectre of communism!•
communists should openly publish their views!•
the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles!•
the oppressor and oppress ruing of the conceding classes!•
the modern bourgeois society, new classes, new conditions of oppression, new forms of •
struggle in place of the old ones!
from the serfs of the middle age, from these burgesses the ﬁrs elements of bourgeoisie were •
division of labour between the diﬀerent corporate guilds vanished in the face of division of •
labour in each single workshop !
growing market stream and machinery revolutionized industrial production !•
the leaders of whole industrial armies: the modern bourgeois !•
the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development of a series of •
revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange!
each step in the development of the bourgeoisie was companied by a corresponding political •
advance of that class. an oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility!
urban republic, monarchy, manufacture proper, the semi-feudal, great monarchies in general •
conquered for itself!
the bourgeoisie has played a most revolutionary part!•
free trade: for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions it has substituted naked, •
shameless, brutal exploitation !
the bourgeoisie has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family •
relation to a mere money relation!
the bourgeoisie cannot exist with our constantly revolutionizing the instrument of production •
and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society!
the old modes of production is the ﬁrst condition of existence for all earlier industrial classes !•
the B' has through its exploitation or market given a cosmopolitan character to production and •
intellectual production: the intellectual creations of individuals nations become common •
means of communication, cheap prices of its commodities!•
barbarians' intensely obstinate hatred of foreigners to capitulate!•
the necessary consequence of this was political centralization. independent, or but loosely •
connected provinces with separate interest laws governments and systems of taxation
became lumped together into one nation with one government on code of laws on national
class interest on frontier and on customs tariﬀ!
the means of production and of exchange were generated in feudal society!•
modern B' society that has conjured up such gigantic means of production and of exchange is •
like the sorcerer who is no longer able to control the powers of the nether world whom he has
called up by his spells!
the epidemic of over-production had cut oﬀ the supply of every means of subsistence and •
why? because there is too much civilization , too much means of subsistence too much
industry, too much commerce. the productive force at the disposal of society no longer tend to
further the development of the conditions of B' property!
and how does the B' get over these crises? distraction of a mass of productive forces, by the •
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conquest of new markets, and by the more thorough exploitation of the old ones!
owing to the extensive use of machinery and to division of labour the work of the proletarians •
has lost all individual character. he becomes an appendage of the machine!
but the price of a commodity and therefore also about is equal to its cost of production. in •
proportion, therefore, as the repulsiveness of the work increases, the wage decreases!
not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class, and of the bourgeois state; they are daily and •
hourly enslave by the machine by the over looker and above all by the individual bourgeois
manufacturer himself. !
the proletariat goes though various stages of development with tits birth begins its struggle •
with the B' !
but of the onion of the B', in order to attain its own political ends, is compelled to set the whole •
proletariat in motion!
at this stage therefore , the proletarians do not ﬁght there enemies, but the enemies of three •
enemies. thus the whole historical movement is concentrated in the hands of the B', the victory
is for B'!
Now and then the workers are victories but only for a time. but every class struggle is a •
B's ﬁns itself involved in a constant battle. at ﬁrst with the aristocracy!•
within the whole range of society, that a small section of the ruling class cuts itself adrift and •
joins the revolutionary class, a portion of the B' foes over to the proletariat and an portion of
the B' ideologists, who have raised themselves to the level of comprehending theoretically the
historical movement as a whole!
The lower middle class, all these ﬁght against the bourgeoisie from extinction their existence •
as fraction of the middle class. !
they are therefore not revolutionary but conservative!•
Dangerous class swept into the movement by a proletarian revolution. the proletarian is •
the p' cannot become masters of the productive forces of society except by abolishing their •
own previous mode of appropriation. they have nothing of their own to secure and fortify!
on the antagonism of oppressing and oppressed classed the yoke of feudal absolutism •
managed to develop into a B'!
He becomes a pauper and pauperism develops more rapidly than population and wealth. its •
existence is no longer compatible with society !
the development of modern industry therefore cuts from under its feet the very foundation on •
which the B' produced and appropriate products!
Imperialism in India: Karl Marx
The british rule in India
when not under the pressure of the mohammedan or the moguls or the Briton dissolved into as •
many independent and conﬂicting states as tit numbered towns or even villages. yet, in a
social point of view Hindustan is not the Italy, but the ireland of the east !
I do not allude to european despotism, plated upon asiatic despotism by the british east india •
company forming a more monstrous combination!
the Dutch Company employed all the existing machinery of despotism to squeeze from the •
people there utmost mite of contribution and semi- barbarous government!
england has broken down the entire framework of Indian society!•
there have been in asian generally form immemorial times: three departments of government!•
ﬁnance or the plunder of the interior!1.
war or the plunder of the exterior!2.
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the department of public works !3.
this prime necessity of an economical and common use of water, drove private enterprise to •
voluntary association as in ﬂanders and italy in the orient where civilization was too low and the
territorial extent too vast to call into life voluntary association the interference of the
centralizing power of government.!
economical function devolved upon all asiatic governments the auction of providing public •
works. this artiﬁcial fertilization of the soil dependent of a central government immediately
decaying with the neglect of irrigation and drainage!
how a single war od devastation has been able to depopulate a country for centuries and to •
strip it of all its civilization!
British in East India accepted from their predecessors the department of ﬁnance and of war, •
but they have neglected entirely that of public works!
oppression and neglect of agriculture. ﬁnal below dealt to Indian society by the British intruder!•
Europe received the admirable textures of indian labour, whose love of ﬁnery is so great that •
even the lowest class have commonly gold ornament!
it was the british intruder who broke up the indian hand-loom and destroyed the spinning •
the Hindoo, like all oriental peoples, the central government the care of the great public works, •
the prime condition of his agriculture and commerce, dispersed, and agglomerated in small
centres by the domestic union of agricultural and manufacturing pursuits so called village
Kurnum- keeps the accounts of cultivation!•
the tallier and the totie- the duty of the former gaining information of crimes and oﬀences!•
the boundary man- gives evidence respecting them in case in dispute!•
the superintendent of tanks, and watercourses distributes the water for the pursues of •
the brahmin- who performs the village worship. !•
the school master- teaching the children in a village to read and write in the san!•
calendar- brahmin or astrologer- constitute the establishment of a village !•
the boundaries of the villages have been but seldom altered sometimes injured even desolated •
by war famine or disease. inhabitants gave themselves no trouble about the breaking up and
decisions of kingdoms!
the petal is still the head inhabitant!•
these small stereotype forms of social organism and are disappearing !•
peculiar combination of hand-weavings spinning and hand tilling agriculture which gave them •
self-supporting power. the only social revolution ever heard of in Asia!
idyllic village communities had always been the solid foundation of oriental despotism!•
we must not forget that these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste •
and by slavery!
England it is true in causing a social revolution in hindostan. can mankind fulﬁll its destiny •
without a fundamental revolution the social state of asia?!
The Future results of British Rule in India!
a country not only divided between mohammedan and hind!•
indian society has no history at all. what we call its history but the history of the successive •
intruders who founded their empires on the passive basis of that unresisting and unchain
double mission in India: one destructive, the other regenerating !•
the Zemundars and Ryotwar, private property in land, the great desideratum of asiatic society!•
the zemundars: new big landowners who were established by the british from among ◦
former tax collector!
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