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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Agata Piekosz

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Lecture 3 11.07.2012 Marx 1) society is objective 2) Theories focus on “critical” and “conflict theorizing” 3) theories start with structure (macro) which then affects human potential (micro): (macro>micro) Durkheim (biologically driven) 1) society is objective 2) theories focus on emotionally infused “interactions” that include morals and culture 3) theories start with individuals (micro) to show how cultural elements (macro) inform those interactions : (micro > -believed that morality values in a culture - looked at society as an organism -every part of that organism can be distinguished -equality cannot eliminated Durkheim modern industrial society is different wanted to know how these people form a common society he created a scheme that classified where society -organic solidarity: differences are more pervasive, similarities are less appartent, people are held together by mutual need and “abstract ideas” and fewer beliefs or sentiments -mechanic solidarity: individuals are “mechanically” and “automatically” bound together. There are few personal differences, little competition, high equality -social solidarity: three elements of social solidarity 1. The subjective sense individuals have that they are part of the whole (psychological) 2. The constraint that people have in their desire for the good of the collective (behavioral) 3 The coordination of individuals and social units (structural) -3 levels: psychological, structural, behavioral each of these be questioned independently Division of labour A stable organization of tasks and roles that coordinate the behavior of individuals or groups that carry out different but related tasks -similarity and difference -Less personal difference, high equality, that’s where mechanical solidarity exists -more differentiation, when people are held by abstract fluid idea and sentiment  organic solidarity occurs under condition complex social structure and subsystem, just like the heart Modern society is defined by high differention with high number of diverse structure Organic solidarity: these social subsystem is more rational than moral everything happen for a reason, but in a more fluid way - where organic is present, there is more greater individuality, utilitarian necessity, useful to be connected From mechanical to organic solidarity, from similarity to difference, the problem is rooted in division of labor. Durkheim He wants to make
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