History and social problem of the suburbs
The car and the suburbs
New urbanism and smart growth etc.
Commodification of urban culture
NO REREAD ANY of those articles
Turn the title of the articles into questions and answer them
Picture: Are people who live in the suburbs stupid people?
NO – reasons that beyond their control: jobs location, conformity, social policy,
globalization… freedom of choice is limited
Once they move there….property values matters
Not personality thing
The commodification of City Space (from last class)
In the 20 C, not just things, but now also spaces and places are marketed for sale
The Symbolic Economy (Sharon Zukin)
“*the+ intertwining of cultural symbols and entrepreneurial capital”
U of T: prestige (power of symbols)
Cities are packaged and marketed
Tourism, media and entertainment
Disaster tourism, ecotourism, culinary tourism, water tourism, religious/faith tourism,
wildlife tourism, literary tourism
In the 40s, no transportation!!!
Suicide tourism, health tourism, sex tourism, ghetto tourism, thanatoursim (death)…
The Tourist Gaze
Start to see the city in a tourist’s aspect How will the tourists see this place?
How do we Want them to?
E.g. of Carlos Slim (Mexican mega-billionaire) who had some of Mexico’s streets made
into cobbled streets, for the tourists’ gaze
Because the effects of globalisation tend to homogenize culture, now we have to
The problem is….
Political economy approach the connections between the local and the global
Tourism promotes seasonal, non-unionized, low-wage jobs,
Diverts local public monies from addressing crucial local problems
Is a form of mass seduction; does more harm than good
What is a “World Class City”?
“to be a world-class city, at least a North American world-class city, we need an NFL
Toronto City Councillor Doug Ford
“to market itself, Toronto needs a core identity that everyone understands, from CEOs
to taxi drivers.”
o Greg Clark, a London-based economic level. Guru
* marking: city for sale*
Core identity: who is gonna to pick that? Sarcastic to
Everyone understands: teach the stupid people to understand; the
teach people how to think about the city
From CEOs to Taxi drivers: taxi drivers with high educated background
So? Big deal!
We all know that money makes the world go around!
Picture: Celebration Florida
Acres of area brought by Walter? Developed by the Disney
Nuclear and Straight, upper middle class, detached houses
Speaker embedded in the palm tree: Christmas music + Disney songs
93.75% white 1.7% black 2% Asian
Who said this?
“Increasingly, we see the right to the city falling into the hands of private or quasi-
David Harvey** Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain
From Prado to Prada
The idea of the commodity of city space:
The city itself, as a product on a shelf
The arts are being co-opted to sell the city
Entire cities are now “hard branded”
“karaoke architecture” – loud and proud (Las Vegas)
Diversity? Sure, if it brings in $$
“the cost is borne… by those who do not have a stake in the gentrification processes” (p.
The redefine of the space occupied b culture is increasingly commodified and
dependent on private producers
Who decide for the access to these spaces?