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SOC212H1 (148)

chapter 9

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University of Toronto St. George
William Magee

chapter 9 Control TheoriesIntroductioncan be traced back through Durkheim to hobbes to aristotle Bantham attempted to base social and legal controls on the principle of rational calculationsfelicfic calculus assumed that human beings have capacity to align their actions with whatever course would maximize their pleasure and penalties for infraction ie householders who lock their doors at night express one aspect of such theories the belief that opportunity in itself is a cause of crimecontrol theory lacked intellectual interest concentrates on reducing crime through loss prevention target hardening and enhanced visibilitythe neglect of control theory may also have been due to unpopularity in liberal sociological circles that appears to support discipline punishment and regulationGluecks study 3 variables in predictive studies mothers affection for the child mothers supervision of the child and family cohesion Gluecks study neglected in 1960 such variables is ventral to revived forms of control theory 1920s30s period produced main sociological version of controld theory Shaw and Mckay concept of social disorganizationJackson Toby proposed controlled theory by asserting that delinquents were distinguished from nondelinquentsby their minimal stake for conformity combination of variations in the inner commitment to conform and the external opportunities to deviate was already furnishing an alternative to the by now overelaborate motivation offered by the strain theorists Homans and Blau provided a model social exchange theoriesa sociological version of homo economicus held that human behaviour is explained by individual gratifications provided by exchange and that moral values emerge from ongoing exchangesa lack of conformity and presence of opportunities creates deviance this approach doesnt say how people choose between different payoffsDiscussion deviance and culture crime and the full moon
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