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Lecture 4

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC212H1
Professor
Candace Kruttschnitt
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 4 1. The Classical School th  Prior to 18 C, there were also lots of speculation about crime from Plato and Aristotle  Most speculations based on religious beliefs and superstition  Imagery linking sings to people who have been possessed by evil spirits  It also resulted in the middle ages in many really draconian punishments.  Book by Foucalt (?)  Punishments about Damien. Very gruesome During this time in history, not only were torture common (and public executions), there was also systematic hunts for witches horribly tortured after being charged with witchcraft  Over the next 200 years Europe changed dramatically (industrial revolution, changes in economy, changes in social life,  enlightenment period)  Enlightenment thinkers believed that people were rational human beings. And believed in the social contract (give up some for safety)  If you commit a crime, I don’t want you any longer to take out the guy, but it’s a violation of the king’s peace. That’s why prosecutors in US are called ‘the crown’ (they’re viewed as responsible for taking on the case of the victim)  Crime is now centralized (against state than individual)  The Classical school of criminology: o Ceasar Beccaria (1738-and Jeremy Bentham ( 1748-1832) o Two fundamental ideas challenged ideas about religion and aristocracy o Beccaria argued in this in ‘crimes nad punishents’ when individuals don’t know whwat is illegal (or the punishment), the deterrant value is 0. That is we can’t deter crime if people don’t know what is illegal and what the punishment for it tis. We need to make that known to the populace; the severity of the punishment handed out by the state should fit the severity of the offence; laws should also ensure the greatest amount of happiness. Before laws really privileged certain classes of people o In 1823: Bentham built on these ideas (utilitarian)-  Argued that people act in their own self interest  An individual will maximize pleasurable experiences and minimize painful experiences Contemporary Versions of the Classical school of thought:  Today we have contemporary version of this classical school of crim o General deterrence vs. specific deterrence o General deterrence: crime rates are influenced by threat of punishment (if you’re sca
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