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Lecture 9

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University of Toronto St. George
Candace Kruttschnitt

Lecture 9: Control Theories 11/14/2012 1:12:00 PM 1. External Control Theories A. Introduction -Albert Reese: Control theory, delinquency, family controls, community and personal controls to explain delinquency -Niles expanded on that B.Travis Hirschi published ‘Causes of Delinquency’ focused research on control theory  Freudian approach to study delinquency  He believed an interesting question why don’t they all get involve in delinquency and crime  He argued that there are social bonds that individuals establish within society, once they’re in place, really prevent kids from engaging in delinquent behavior  Social Bonds: o Attachment person sensitivity to an interest in others (most important to parents, peers, schools, he put considerable emphasis on parental attachments) o Commitment the time and energy that youth expend on conventional activities such as school work, pro social goals in life o Involvement Involvement not only in school but other institutions (ie. Religious organizations, school clubs) o Belief sharing common moral beliefs (believing in right/wrong)  Theory generated an immense amount of empirical support (people went out and tested it and saw if it was important if kids were attached, commited to school, etc.)  Hirschi tested in California. Particularly strong in parental attachement and pro social involvements.  Problems with theory: o What if the parents were involved in delinquency o What if you were really attached to yours friends, but they were all delinquents o Hirschi thought about strength of bond, but not pro social/ anti social bonds o **very important criticisms o We know less about which bond is most important, even if people have looked at parental attachment o Children who fail in school are more likely to offend than those who are more successful in school o Does educational failure cause delinquency? Or if you lack an attachment to the school? o How does this theory explain gender differences?  girls are more less likely to be involved in delinquency than boys, but how does Hirschi explain it?  girls are more likely to have stronger attachments than boys have. C. Hagan’s Power Control Theory: The potential for control to explain different gender delinquency. -Theory two primary factors:  Social class  Family controls -Key premise of theory: Power in the workplace influences parents on how they socialize their kids (affects power relations in the household) that in turn affects how parents socialize their children (their gender schema for raising boys or for raising girls)  affects child’s taste for risk and hence delinquency -In households where they called unbalanced, or patriarchal families (husbands employed in positions of authority, and women might have jobs, but not to the level of husband job. OR husband employed full time, woman stay at home)  The control of daughters is the strongest in this type of family (so see very little delinquency in these girls) In Balanced, egalitarian families (husbands and wives have equal status jobs, ie. Doctor and lawyer couple or both have lower class jobs but equal in rank ie. Both work in factories) OR there is no dad, and mom raise kids on own  In these families, daughters get freedom (reduced control from parents) and are more likely to be involved in delinquency (more risk taking) -Even if you have equality in the workplace, doesn’t mean that you have equality in the workplace (ie. Female CEO not treated the same as a male CEO) -There are a lot of other factors involved in socialization of kids  Work can’t be seen as a uniform thing that has same influence on kids (ie. Flux schedule, if one of your kids sick can you stay home with them)  Characteristics of the job (can you afford some things, how much does your job mean to you)  Affected by characteristics of the child (sex of child, age of child)  The presence of extended family -Impact of siblings? -Maternal distress may also explain the outcomes that Hagan and Simpson and Gillis predict. -Women with high power jobs (egalitarian) may experience emotional stress which could affect parenting, and daughters could turn to delinquency (because women come home from work, make dinner, laundry, household chores) -there must be something about income, job stress, etc. on how people may parent Hagan, Simpson, Gillis (took gender difference in account for delinquency) -Bill McCarthy and Hagan  shifted attention away from effects of power control theory influences girls delinquency to boys delinquency. What are these gender schemas, and how do they impact boys (and in particular, the effect of maternal roles on boys choice for delinquency) -When women have more power in the workplace, their sons are more critical of traditional gender schemas and are less likely to engage in delinquency (more egalitarian) 2. Internal Control Theories: Self Control: Gottfredson and Hirschi: crime and criminality -Focused on the way of internal control affected behavior Gottfredson and Hirschi one explanation for crime, low self control -people with a low self co
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