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Soc212h1 Summer May 22.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Jenna Valleriani

May 22, 2013 Lecture #3 Measuring Crime and Deviance: Sources of Information Review - Deviance - the recognized violation of cultural norms - Deviance varies across time and space - People become deviant as others define them that way - everyone breaks social norms - if we are criminal, it depends on the reaction of others - Both norms and the way people define rule breaking involve social power - norms and how we apply them reflect social inequality - rule breaking is unequally applied to people - defining deviance involves concepts of social power Last Week - Focus on “data collection” - Included Simulation (pg 68): Most famous “Stanford Prison Experiment” by Zimbardo - Aim: To investigate how readily people would conform to the roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that simulated prison life - take volunteers, split them into guards and prisoners, study them to see if the nature of a prison guard was because of personality or made this way because of prison - deindividualization - stripped, personal items removed, uniforms, referred to as a number, lost everything making them an individual - some guards became to harass prisoners and seemed to enjoy it - as prisoners became independent, the guards treated them worse - prisoners became more submissive - in 36 hours, one prisoner had to leave because of signs of deep depression - experiment only ran for a week, but only went for 7 days - conclusion - people are ready to conform to the social roles they are expected to act - the prison environment is an important factor in creating the guards brutal behaviours - the roles shapes their attitudes and behaviours - follow up study - guards considered prisoners cattle - both prisoners and guards found it difficult to believe the way they behaved - stereotypes were met - Milgram Experiment - shock therapy - Three components of the Lucifer effect - disposition - situation - systemic - The power of institutions: The “prison” environment was an important factor in creating the guards’brutal behaviour - we need to focus on the environments people are a part of - prison guards were shocked of their behaviours Problems withAcquiring Crime and Deviance Data 1. Access to deviants is difficult, costly, time consuming, and often only partial - find some sort of in - spend time building those relationships 2. Much deviance lies beyond the scope of research - hard to observe and analyze deviance - those who want to stay hidden will stay hidden - not a representative sample 3. Barriers exist within social worlds, even if access is gained - no way to ensure is that perspective you’re getting is right 4. Social worlds may not be accurately represented - challenge interviewers - claim that you only get one presentation of self - no way to verify - more time in the field, more contradictions - get our definitions of crime and deviance from the media - not reliable because it could be biased - official sources of data Sources Official Data Uniform Crime Repors (UCR) - Standardized counts of crimes known to the police - National statistics about crime rates - Event/population size x 100,00 Also includes stats from other official sources - Competition Bureau, hospitals, institutions, CJS - cities and municipalities use this for their police distributions - provided information for policy initiatives - also the nature as well as crime trends - use data to examine issues about crime The Crime Funnel Actual Level of Crime - all crime Detected Crime Reported Crime Recorded Crime Arrests Convictions Noncustodial Punishment - fines, probation Custodial Punishment - sending someone to prison - relation total crimes occurred and number accused - wide at the top and narrow at the bottom - many cases, but the number of cases decreases and number gets removed through the process - some dismissed, referred to treatments - used to show how most offenders are not noticed or caught - those at the bottom are a very special case of deviance Pros - Regional differences cancel out - able to compare internationally, nationally - Consistent estimates observed across regions - Accurate for more serious offenses - ex. m
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