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SOC212H1 (146)

Complete Soc of Crime & Deviance
Complete Soc of Crime & Deviance

35 Pages
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University of Toronto St. George
Nathan Innocente

Soc of CrimeDeviancethDefining DevianceSept 13What is DevianceAre you deviant Am IWho commits deviance WhyWho commits crime WhyWhat is the differenceWho defines deviance Who controls itCrime is punishable through the judicial system Deviance is not punishable it is controlled by sanctions The language of legitimacy is scienceDeviance changes over time Many ideas are generated a long time ago and have become mainstreamIt matters when ideas take place and how it translates todayDeviance found in the eye of the beholderDeviance is often temporally and culturally situatedso how do you define deviance 1 Statistical DefinitionCommon conditions determine what is normal or deviantStatistical minority represents devianceEg Most teens drink and commit crime so nondrinking noncriminal teens are deviant2 Absolutist definitionDeviance results from a value judgment based on absolute standardsAbsolute moral ordernormal is good and there is something obviously bad in each deviant act Continuity of a certain believe Eg Religions proscriptions against homosexuality3 Relativist definitionDeviance is a social product Whether people react to and label as deviant becomes deviantEg MADDdrunk driving4 Normative definitionDeviant label depends on what group thinks should or shouldnt occurCan change from situation to situation and over timeValues are pluralnot absoluteDefinition of DevianceViolation of social normsbehavioural codes that guide people into actions and presentations of self that conforms with social expectationsAgreement about norms may not be universal but clear and vocal majority must agreeViolating norms draws reactions and sanctionsExplaining deviance1 Prescientific approachesParables and mythsdescribe and explain deviance and its consequences Moral lessonsEg Icarus children stories 2 Supernatural Deviance and suffering as beyond human controlActions of the gods hostile spiritNot entirely predictable or preventable 3 Demonic devianceSupernatural forces act through weak or willing people to cause harmEg crop failure murder illness etc Temptation devil facilitates evilPossession control by devils mental illness birth defects etcSinreligious paradigm or nonsecular governmentsNonconformity cast sinfulAffected are condemnedEg apostasy premarital sex interfaith marriage heresyParadigmdiscredit beliefs of othersWitchcraftRecast as subversive conspiracy and belief in spirits and magic Contemporary examplesEvil the taint of satanism and the occult Ex McMartin Nursery school Martensville daycareTorture human sacrifice cannibalism etcRole playing games addDevil Worship suicide witchcraft ostracism accusation of satanism and occult Classical approachEnlightenment rationality and empiricism Social contract free willBentham hedonistic and felicific calculus benefit vs CostBeccariabook as rallying cry against inequality in justice systemBeccauria had same ideas that exist today in justice systemHe believed people choose to commit crimes Deterrence Pain vs Pleasure Have to make sure painpleasureGeneral deterrenceimpress societythe majority and is meant to deter everyoneSingular deterrencemeant to deter the individual CertaintyWill you be coughtSeverityDoes it offset pleasureSolidityThe speed of the processBiological approachesPhysiognomyPhrenologyCraniometrySomatotypingAll supposed to be able to say something about characterAtavism and Forensic AnthropologyLombrosoCriminals are evolutionary throwbacksStigmata physical characteristics as evidence of deviant propensityBiological theories about crimeEugenics and DegeneracyGaltonLinks with social darwinismSelective breeding as antidoteSterilization immigration control executionHeredityDugdale and the JukesTwin studies concordanceAdoption studies Some biological relationships observedModern Biological ApproachesHeredityBiological processenvironmental stressDeviance as a systemMedicilizationDefinition of deviant behaviourProspectingClaims makingLegitimacy
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