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1. Lecture Notes (9:12:2012).docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Candace K.

1. Lecture Notes (9/12/2012) 9/12/2012 12:06:00 PM  SOC 313 is the second part  3 exams, non cumulative  25%- MC- only 2 chapter  50% - Covers 5 Chapters of Reading  25% - November 28, Final Exam  Deviance as a subject matter is interesting but difficult to study, it can be normative in some countries (even extremes- homicide), it can be completely different in some countries  Context matters, it can change the nature of act (this is shown thru anthropologists)  IN some middle eastern countries, women who are raped or beaten are not victims but deviants themselves  At some point, women & children had no rights to themselves, merely just properties  Pre-marital sex/ Giving birthday before marriage/ smoking inside building….etc  What gets defined deviance is the often a reflection of interest of the majority of the society or the ruling elites,  Audiences is always important- how people view what is going on  Deviant is the one to whom the label has been successfully applies  Is deviance the made by social construction- people’s belief of whether it is rights/wrong  Joe Best: examine why Halloween became fearful holiday? Stranger Danger? Poisoned Candy? Why is there widespread believe that sadistic people would attempt to kill?  They found 76 reported incidents in total, also reported cases from other regions (25 yrs period)  Concluded that Halloween Sadism is Greatly Exaggerated, only one death, death was caused by a man who poisoned his own son  Argued time was right, growing concern with crime, safety of children and etc  Does it foster change? Being homosexual was considered a sickness, but now it no longer belongs there  Deviance can be undermined and cause social disorganization  Most theoretical explanations for deviance focuses on youth (not murder or rapists)  Differential association: wanted to use it to explain white collar crime, Edward Sutherland  Attend to fact that lots of deviant behaviors are hardly detached, people engaging in to do not want to be discovered  Discovery of these sources (discussed next week)  Who Defines Deviants?  5 approaches to this  Statistical Approach: depending on how many people do it/ just by counting number of people who engage in particular act, to determine whether it is deviant or not. o Advantage- accurately reflects what is going on in society (if everybody is speeding in 401, then police should not be catching anyone because nobody is deviant) or (everybody is taking steroid, it is a level playing field now), notion here is when majority is doing it, how can it be deviant o Disadvantage- if there is mass amt of people doing it, it might be not be deviant, cannot count them all because not all people would talk about it, how would we know how many people do it in many different context (voluntary, non-voluntary)?, some do not want will want to criminalize themselves  Not difficult to recognize logical end points ***  Absolutist Approach: using this way, we decide what is good/bad, we are absolutely declaring whether the acts x, y, z are deviant o Viewed as a social perspective, o Benefit: focus on fundamental question and focus on social life, what is okay, what is not o Problem: it changes over time/place, it is decided by observatory who make rules for society, there are issues over these matters (guns, abortions & etc), different perspective creates difficulty  Functionalist: behaviors deemed bad for society would be considered deviant regardless of how often it is done and it is functional because it establish boundaries and paves the way for change (to be more tolerant of other activities)  Conflict Perspective (opposite of functionalist): argue against absolute perspective because who decides the moral standards of behaviors? The elites?  **: behaviors existed before legal definit
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