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Bonnie Fox (74)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6 Oct 18.docx

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Bonnie Fox

Soc214h1f- October 18, 2011 New middle-class ideals of family and marriage in the 19 century and th working class families Last week- family economies, common in western Europe, US, Canada before Industrial revolution because production took place in household, family relations and work relations were entangled- this family economy is dependent on and only happens when man has access to things in home. (Ex. If farmer need land, skills in case of artisans) - Little opportunity for sentiment to develop - Family is a unit of work foremost, practical considerations take priority, how long son/daughter home under economic lens - Another implication of family economy- composition changes frequently - Tilly and Scott if not enough producers bring some in - Children sent into service increasingly, Tilly and Scott gives numbers - Finally- these are households of patriarchy Tilly and Scott said in one sentence but Cohen looks at same thing but fills out argument that these are patriarchal house-holds; women who were married had no control over property which extended beyond mans death. upon death goes to sons - Patriarchal households- women in position of dependency (Cohen) Today: new ideas developed in upper/middle class- you will recognize these ideas there are 3-4 of these ideas (marriage: what love is, development of domestic ideals and development of gender ideals) = modern ideas that are developed and solidify in Canada and US (they shape our ideals today) How did we move from family economy type? - Nancy Cott- read for brief description of ideas around the home, how people thought about the home - Maxine Margolis- attempt to explain why this happened - Tamara Hareven- about Quebecers who migrated to work in textile working class families I. The idea that marriage should be based on love - By 1850s, for middle and upper class- love was basis for marriage, marriage should be based on individual choice, not arranged. th - Love is not a new idea in the 19 century - Middle Ages did not connect love to marriage Stephanie Coontz, Marriage, A History- traces where this concept comes from, develops slowly over centuries, arranged marriages were modified, parents give daughters and sons choice, end of 18 century personal choice replaced arranged th marriage and people thought of marriage in terms of love by middle of 19 century marriage is supposed to be based on love and people choose partners. this is strictly middle and upper class - Coontz argues several sources for this she says to look at the family economy which was a different family pattern that differed from past based on extended 1 families. European family patterns meant couple left parents and made own household. Since husband and wife alone, they needed to cooperate thus they became working partnerships. At least they had to be harmonious or manageable conjugal unions. = the seeds or foundation of the nuclear family and couple running household. A. Household economies in which married couples established independent households and working partnerships: foundation for (later) love-based marriage B. Changing Ideas (The Second set of causes) (1) The Protestant Reformation (1498 Luther posted statement, 16 thcentury): marriage as a superior state, the importance of the roles of husband and wife and mother, & the responsibilities of parents to their children - represented a real change in thinking about family, a critique of authoritarianism in Catholic Church and religious practices - Luther was also very concerned with family - Catholic Church view of marriage was second best while celibacy was number one (way to virtue) purpose of marriage was procreation - View of wives and husbands by Catholic Church- obey husbands - In contrast Luther came along and rejected celibacy as superior he married nun who escaped convent - He attacked Churchs acceptance of private vows- Church wanted people to marry in Church- Luther said the problem was this was that girls could be coerced into sex with promise of marriage - Luther tried to elevate the status of marriage and roles of husbands and wives - The churchs views emphasized rights, parents rights over children, husband right of wife Luther wanted to emphasized responsibilities - This was one shift in ideas where some went from Catholic to Protestant (2) The Enlightenment (18 thcentury): the innocence of children, love as the basis of marriage - The age of reason, implications for peoples views of marriage and family, glorification and notion we can organize this life, we can live good moral life - Some ideas that came out- children are innocent - Catholic Church viewed kids as born in sin that needed to be civilized- this was debated by Enlightenment thinkers - Should not hand children over to wet nurses (3) The French and American revolutions (18 t): equality and the pursuit of happiness as human rights - Especially the French - With these revolutions- equality becomes an important concept! a reaction to feudalism, rejection of nobilities authority, notion that people were dependent 2- This was a new idea and the French Revolution criticized patriarchy and emphasized womens inequality - Inequality is an important ingredient - Americans write to the pursuit of happiness as a rite new idea, would not be understood in middle ages Stephanie- development of nuclear family pattern early on and then several cultural changes- that is behind notion of love as basis of marriage II. The Cult of Domesticity and Gender as Separate Spheres - The notion the home is a refuge cult of domesticity - These ideas developed by upper middle class A. Economic change: the development of an industrial capitalist economy (an important context) (15 and 19 century) 1) The development of a capitalist class and a market economy characterized by impersonal market forces operating beyond the control of humans o A class with money that wants to invest in production, begins with group of merchants who make money on long distance trade and in England it was trade in wool goods, trading on world market accumulating money if they knew what they were doing o This trade involves a different market and market place in terms of scale o Not a local market- which were run and controlled by guilds, skilled men and women who trained people to do certain trade, licensed them and controlled sale of goods in market pla
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