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Bonnie Fox (74)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8 Nov 15.docx

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Bonnie Fox

SOC214H1F Tuesday November 15, 2011 Test Review- Answer the test with course material. 27. Why do foraging societies not live in nuclear families? - Need for cooperation and sharing among a number of adults more than two - Women usually gatherer and man hunter- need more than two - Would not be able to survive without more than 2 because living of resources foraged - Hunting- luck and skill - Survival strategy via cooperation, share game 28. Explain why, instead of saving, marrying and forming nuclear families, people in poor African-American communities in the US in the 70s formed personal networks of kin who exchanged scarce goods and service on an ongoing basis. - start with poverty, people did not have enough to survive - women could get social services cheque - men no access to good jobs - people cannot survive if they just take what they get which inhibited marriage - instead of marrying, there is a pattern of forming networks of people who continually exchange goods and services - giving with intent of getting back = survival strategy = give and take - Stack says this is a Creative adaptation of poverty - Survival strategy is to form these networks, they give to have obligations, not out of generosity it is a creative and positive adaptation When questions say EXPLAIN- you must make an argument! 29. Family economy- situation where work and family and entangled and take place in the household- labour requirements need to balance with consumption requirements work and family located in same place - Why did marriage take place late? Peasants lived off the land! Land is the essential requirement to survive point was that men and boys had to wait for fathers to give them land, mostly die. Girls had to acquire some useful household equipment, waiting for father to pass on an give a farm animal or household utility or for her to even save a bit to have a dowry. Took place late because you needed to acquire these things later. Why could love not be the basis? Because it was a family economy, required husband and wife, critical are both people, need to be practical 30. Why household composition changes frequently- there must be a balance between household production needs and household composition. Household members are labour force, balancing producers against dependents, so if too many kids you send them away if not enough to do the work you take in another servant. Another point is that mortality rates are high so people frequently die before reaching adulthood. 31. Why are children frequently sent away? Because families require a continual production of household product and composition. Servant meant dependent person were not usually treated badly. Lecture - We have seen how marriage has changed in Western history o family economies were based on practical considerations so then you get a very different set of concerns there than today - Wealthy people back then focused on political and economic alliances - In the 19 century we see marriage take on different nature as middle class men saw families as symbolic of responsibility, motherhood changed as well thus nature of family changed th th - 20 century- the notion that happiness was expected (late 19 century started) This notion of happiness as a goal is new - Early 20 century- notion that active sexuality should be present, marriage should be based on love, sexually good partners thus change of how people think of sexuality - EquatTH sexuality with reproduction in the past The Talk sex for reproduction 19 CENTURY- the assumption was however that people were capable of a lot of things in terms of sexual behaviour. - We know people were doing other things- Ex: 19 century masturbation seen as horrible practice, said it weakened male citizens no heterosexual or homthexual - 19 century thus passed laws against non-reproductive sexuality! against contraception, abortion, variety of sexual acts that were non reproductive, same sex sex, and mostly the laws were aimed at promoting reproduction so sex with the objection of reproduction. These remained in the books till late 1960s contraception was illegal until 1969, abortion illegal until 1987? - These are laws passed to promote fertility - What is interesting is that they were not meant to encourage all women to have babies- because 19 century states in US and provinces in Canada began forcibly sterilizing people they did not want to reproduce (US- poor African American women, forcibly sterilized) - In Canada and US- those deemed mentally deficient were sterilized, unknown to them, when very young= therefore not everyone encouraged to have kids - Late 19 century early 20 century- our ideas of sexuality changed- we developed ideas about homosexual people, heterosexual, sexuality seenths a clue to who you were, your identity- only coined terms late 19 century new way of thinking of people all together - Point: sexuality is not something that is just stable across history or natural, governments in this part of the world have worked deliberately to curb peoples sexuality and push in certain directions, promoting other kinds o Our sexuality is not just a natural product, it is socially shaped, there are pressures on us, less today than in a long time, but there are pressures! o We know from research that parents and mothers talk to kids assuming they will be heterosexual o Boys on playground have trouble if they seem not to be heterosexual- Also early 20 century- marriage- sex is the glue that holds marriage together #3 located below- interestingly they started talking about the problems people had around sexuality in marriage, whatthas interesting was that the key problem was womens problems. From early 20 century through next 50 years, one frequent problem was that womens frigidity and how that was a threat to marriage. Also some recognition in that talk that women expected to be virgins, there was a problem of expecting them to go from being virgins to excite about sex- thus they were seen as the problem. I. Sexuality A. Social factors and forces that shaped what was seen as normal sexuality 1) Nineteenth-century legislation to equate sexuality with reproduction: laws against non-reproductive sex & anti-abortion laws 2) The ideas of homosexual and heterosexual people, identities, & sexual natures, developed in the late 19 t, early 20 thcenturies 3) Experts promotion of the idea that sex was the glue holding marriage together (20 thcentury) more details above. 4) Alfred Kinsey on sexual diversity - 1940s and late 30s- you get a different public discussion from Kinsey. Kinsey was professor at Indiana who studied sexuality, he interviewed thousands of
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