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sept 25.docx

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Bonnie Fox

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Cross-cultural pattern and a description of foraging societies 2011census - Households: only 1/4 contain mom, dad, kids- more are multiple-family households (most are extended family—concentration of immigration population) - Families: 67% are married couples [1961: 91.6%] ▫ 16.7% are common-law couples [1981: 5.6%] ▫ 16.3% are lone parents [1961: 8.4%] ▫ An increased number of same-sex couples- 2.6% are blended families (1 of every 10 children live in them) ▫ Young adults living in their parents‘ home (a worldwide phenomenon): 59.3% of 20-24 year-olds; 25.2% of 25-29 yr.-olds I. Cross-cultural Evidence on Family Patterns A. Common-sense assumptions - We assume the nuclear family was universal and was found in all societies - Anthropologists: there is nothing about family since people organize themselves in different ways B. The evidence on the range of human societies F. Edholm‘s summary - Conception and sex: a variety of understandings; no causality of biology ▫ In most society, biology is not known ◦ In Trobriand Islands, it is believed that conception results from the entry of a spirit into the womb; the male‘s role is to ―open‖ the womb through intercourse. The child‘s blood comes from the mother‘s side and the child is not related to the father ◦ In Marind-Anim society, it is believed that fertility is only possible from a mixture of semen. Thus, gang raped at marriage and on subsequent occasions are common ◦ The Lakker of Burma believed that the mother is only a container for the child. She has no blood-connection with her child ▫ There is always a social aspect or relationships in biology - The mother-child relationship: not always close; biological mothers are not necessarily responsible for care ▫ There is nothing about maternity-instinct (when women are pregnant, they tend to go and read books since they have no idea what to do) ▫ In Melanesia and Polynesia, children are adopted just after weaning ▫ In Tahiti, young women often have few children before they are considered to have a stable relationship. These children will be take care by the young women‘s parents - Fatherhood – biological vs. social (recognized, given responsibility)- in some culture, father is defined by social not biological - Marriage – different forms ▫ Multiple spouses ▫ Group marriage ▫ Ghost marriage - Household – diverse compositions ▫ Nuclear families are often embedded in an external families ▫ Monogamy, polygyny, vivilocal, martilocal, neolocal, etc - Incest – variable interpretation ▫ It is not necessary based on family ▫ Exception: in ancient Egypt, inbreeding (brother-sister) was enforced to keep the purity of the royal line ▫ In Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, father-daughter and brother-sister sexual relationship were common II. Foraging Societies (Hunters & Gatherers) Evidence: Kung San, Botswana, Africa (R.B.Lee) ∙ Montagnais-Naskapi, Labrador and Newfoundland, Canada (E.B. Leacock and the ‗Jesuit notebooks‘) - The devel
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