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Lecture 3

SOC243 Week 3.docx

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William Magee

SOC 243: Week 3 1. Some information about Cancer epidemiology  Globally the number of cancer deaths is expected to grow from 12 million new cases and 7 million deaths from cancer in 2009 to a projected 26 million new cases and 11.4 million deaths in 2030  Approximately 72% of cancer deaths occurred in low and middle-income countries in 2007, where the leading causes of cancer mortality are lung, stomach, liver, colon and rectum, and cervix.  Cancer becoming more common could be because of population aging (some countries older/newer than older, but the whole world is getting older as a whole)  Cancer incidence rates are going up, but at the same time, people are always changing habits, eating healthier, quitting smoking, to fight this. So not sure if the variation is strictly due to age depending on the ‘trends of incidence’ graph The Impact of infectious diseases on cancers in developing countries  Some 18% of cancers world wide can be linked to chronic infections such as hepatitis, HPV, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, herpes, Helicobacter pylori, and schistosoma,… e.g. stomach (H.pylori,5.5%); cervix, ano-genital, mouth and pharynx (HPV, 5.2%); liver (HBV and HCV, 4.9%)  More than 25% of cancer incidence in developing countries could be avoided if infectious causes of cancer were prevented 2. The Social Shaping of Disease and Illness  Smoking: Statistical evidence that smoking causes cancer initially came from statistical models== e.g. British Doctor’s Study (1951-2001) and in 1956 observed lung cancer incidence to be proportional to (cigs/day +6)*(age- 22.5)  The long struggle to get evidence accepted did not immediately lead to smoking reductions, smoking was (is) part of lifestyles – chosen to some extent Smoking Identity and Choice  There is an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking. But classes are not uniform. Within groups defined by class, preferences for classical music are associated with lower smoking, while preferences for bluegrass, jazz, and heavy metal music are associated it with higher smoking. This suggests that people use smoking, like other cultural tastes, to distinguish their lifestyle group from those of others. Some network processes in the Social shaping of population health  Social networks structure the dissemination/diffusion of health related information and the ability to act effectively on information, shaping health related practices  Much of social support is information – about what to do ie. How to get help (instrumental support), and social influence on how to interpret and react to information—i.e. shaping the meaning of information  Social characteristics and categories (ie. Class, race, gender…) associated with network structure may influence differential health outcomes Reversals  Lung cancer and colorectal cancer rates were briefly higher among higher classes than lower in 1950s in developed countries, when the more socioeconomically privileged classes could afford to smoke more, and first adopted processed food consumption  In The U.S., the SES pattern does not seem to hold among peopled labeled Hispanic. Among Hispanics, the SES gradient with lung cancer (and colorectal cancer) is positive 3. Causal chains, causal webs, and the notions of upstream, downstream and fundamental causes Political economy, Behavior, lifestyle, biology, illness, inequality, income identi
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