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SOC243H1 (60)
Lecture 10

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC243H1
Professor
William Magee
Semester
Winter

Description
Brief discussion of structure and agency  Social structure: enduring and relatively stable patterns of relationship between individuals/groups that typically lead to stratification i.e. unequal distribution of valued goods or holdings in a population that constrains choices of some, and enables others  Low position in the structure (e.g. poverty)  stress proliferation  illness  There is more ways that social structure gets under the skin than stress  Freud talks about Bioagency: capacity for self-initiating and organizing biological processes, such as motor activity and activities in the internal biological milieu (for ex, blood pressure) Agency as an interplay of choices and chances influencing lifestyles  Uncertainty to the extent choices will constrain what is available to us  Sometimes there’s no easy choices  We need to dwell on those choices; you control your health to some extent; but there are small things that we can’t lose sight of e.g. tax incentives Scars in childhood and health group presentation  The act of being scared can be physical, but also mental Definition:  General: physical, sexual, emotional and neglect -e.g. in the U.S, the centre of disease control and prevention define child abuse as any act or series of an act of commission or omission by parent that results in harm/threat to a child; it can also be your peers (bullying), teachers, or a doctor Consequences on the outside  Societal costs  Direct: child welfare system; judicial, health and mental health systems  Indirect: Juvenile, and adult criminal activity; the cost of special services Racial context and social structure  Life course perspective  Biological embedding  How child abuse links to the concept of health o Physical and mental damage o Double disadvantage o Leads to unhealthy risk behaviours o Those who are abused are more likely to abuse o Affects on brain development during critical periods of childhood  Sexual abuse occurs at different stages for different genders -for female, it occurs at 9:15; for males 3:7 Socioeconomic status  Affects rates of abuse  Family instability hypothesis  Stereotypes of victims and perpetrators -white as victims; black as perpetrators  Confirmation bias -victims being ignored; mostly minorities that are abused  American Indians and blacks are more likely to be abused  Reporting issues -parents of blacks/Asians are less likely to trust police; or have language barriers; numbers are actually higher  Intergenerational transfer of maternal domestic abuse leading to child stunting and wasting -blacks and aboriginals are most common victims of domestic violence -this reproduces health inequalities and pass it on to next generation  Accumulated disadvantage Eating disorder have added implications for health  Heart attacks, osteoporosis, suicide *As many as 80% of young adults who had been abused met the diagnostic criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at age 21 Mental disorders  Both low and high risk child abuse are linked to recurring depression  Depression can be linked to abuse as both
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