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Soc 243 class 7.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
William Magee

Soc 243 class 7 Self rsted health Stronger association between self rated health and mortality when the cause of death is a condtition the patient is likely to have known about )ie diabetes, cancer, alcohol) Weaker preditor for sudden causes such as violence Association between self rated health and mortality persists after controlling for all other available health information: "it seems to be that it is very inclusive measure of health reflecting health aspects relevant to survival which are not covered by all other health indicators". Identity and illness- lively and smith reading on blackbord The effect on illness and identity: parsons' sick role The critique of parsons : neglects chronic illness, and neglecting to incorporate the physical body (aches, pains) Illness impacts the individuals sense of self Charmaz: illness as a loss of self. 73 interviews, 57 chronically ill individuals- they face several negative reactions, due to increased social isolation and being discredited by others because of their illness. Somebody diagnosed with cancer for ex will be unlikely to fulfill their roles in society, for ex as a lawyer etc. respondents used the terms loss and constraint. Concluded that chronic illness is a loss of self We need to recover the individuals choice, although is influenced by social factors Theoretical background: symbolic interactionism- George Herbert mead: self shapes society and society shapes self Symbolic interaction: meaning is central to human life Study on cancer support groups: individuals encouraged to view their condition as acute, asnd to see chemotherapy treatment as a necessary evil in their battle against the disease American cancer society adoption of the term "survivor' instead of victim. Problems? Puts responsibility on the patient Individuals strive for cognitive conssitancy: motivated to act in ways, and have thoughts, values and beliefs that are consistant with their sense of self, how they are actually seing themselves, when they act in ways that are constant with their thoughts Benefits and critiques of symbolic interactionism perspective- shows scholars to tap into indi perceptions, thoughts and feelings, critique- while these narratives may be the best to capture, they don’t lend themselves to predictions of future health or in replecting studies over time, because of the subjectivity. 2 assumption that the social role is always in a constant state of reflection Stigma and lebelling theory - Goffman – use for essay if doin skitsophrenia. Definition of stigma: a socially discrediting blemish that may be of the body, of the character, or tribal in nature (ex race or ethnicity) Primary deviance: the behavior that gets one labeled to begin with (ex having a seizure) Secondary deviance: the additional deviance people continue to engage in once they have been labeled Labeling theory of mental illness- very difficult to achieve employment Promotes behaviors aimed at preventing negative reactions (ex concealing treatment histories, withdrawing from social interaction) Identity theory- focuses on how social structure influences individuals identities and the role they play in sustaining the social structure Structural symbolic interactionism Individuals motivated to act in ways that maintain their most highly commited and salient social roles. Someone who is wedded to his patient identity may immerse himself in treatments and seek out friends who are supportive of this approach, and distance himself from those who are not. Others may choose to concentrate their energies on identities that have very little to do with their illness Patients seek out and are more likely to co operate with helath care providers who tell them what they want to hear While the objective realities of individuals who experience the same disease may be similar, their subjective expeorinces may be different depending on the roles they are able to enact. Affect control theory – focuses on internal and behavioral processes an individual undertakes in regulasting and maintaining an identity People try to maintain the feelings they have developed about the world ( not just the self) through socialization ( ie through culture) and experience. Identity control theory- focuses on the more internal (rather than the behavioral) processes an individual undertakes in maintaining and regulating an identity Granbergs (2006) study on sustained weight loss When individuals were dissatisfied with their wiehgt loss, they are more inclined to gain the weight back. For those who successfully lost the wight , they tended to engage in behauioral strategies such as exercising and eat healthy, or reframe their desired self (ex from being sexy to being healthy). Common grounds among those 3 theories All ooperate on the premis that individuals aree motivated to protect or maintain their fundamental sense of self Cancer diagnoses as discursive capture- the experience of c
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